Abstract: and mainly make up from actin, so are

Abstract: Cytoskeleton is a multiscale dynamic
networks in mechanics-chemistry-biology, and plays an essential role in many
biological process, such as cell spreading, migration and cellular
mechanotransduction. In addition, the polymorphism of its microstructure and
dynamic reorganization determine the mechanical behaviours and stability of a
cell. Hence, exploring the micro-mechanism of these dynamic behaviours is a
challenging problem. In this paper, the latest development of experimental and
theoretical studies on the reorganization and mechanical behaviours of
cytoskeleton is reviewed. Future development and challenges are also


Key Words: Cytoskeleton; Micro-structure; Reorganization;

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The cytoskeleton was found very late until the use of glutaraldehyde at room temperature in 1960s, which
make it observable with the electron microscope. It consists of a structural
system called cytoskeletal system, and it is named three intracellular systems
together with intracellular genetic systems and cell membranes system. In most mammals, three kinds of filaments in cells make up the
cytoskeleton system: Microtubules, Microfilaments and Intermediate filaments (Figure
1). Then dimension of microtubules is normally 25nm, the largest one, which
takes longest time to growth and it is comparatively steady than the others.
And microtubules build the main structure of cytoskeleton, supporting the
microfilaments and intermediate filaments. Microfilaments have the smallest
dimension (about 7nm) among them, and mainly make up from actin, so are named
actin filaments sometimes. The active actin filaments are formed with a complex
cycle, including many cooperation of various types of actin proteins.  The diameter of
intermediate filaments is between microtubules and intermediate filaments,
commonly 10nm.

Fig. 1.

Diagrams of the cytoskeleton system

The cytoskeleton supports the cell structure and
determine the shape. It not only determines the mechanical behaviours and stability
of cells, but also controls the motility and deformation of cells and help
cells to perform various biological functions such as transport of biological

Recently, many important events about cell in
different time and space scales have been discovered, including the cellular
And it is a process that outside signal transmits to intracellular while cell
contacts the environment, which influences the growth/depolymerisation and
cross-linking/unbinding of cytoskeleton. This process consists of a range of dynamic
response. In contrast, this dynamic response will make an effect on the
environment and both of them achieve a dynamic balance eventually. Cellular mechanotransduction
has a deep influence on cell and biodiversity, and exploring and discovering cellular
mechanotransduction not only promote the development of biomedicine, but also like
the goal scientists want to achieve. The study in cellular mechanotransduction
still has numbers of problems to be solved, but the important role cytoskeleton
plays in the cellular mechanotransduction is widely recognised.

Besides that, cytoskeleton
network is a kind of spatial flexible structure that can be simulated by
mechanical model. Cytoskeleton is an extremely complex
biomolecular system in which molecular-scale components form a mesoscopic scale
structure together, and mesoscopic scale structure couples with each other to
form a continuous network. Some researchers use fractal dimension method to describe
this continuous and inhomogeneous structure and this method will be talked
later. From the viewpoint of bionics, the
cytoskeleton network has certain reference value for the study of spatial
structure. Scientists can find more effective method to support a structure
with limited materials by simulating the cytoskeleton network directly instead
of using computers to explore.

Researchers carried out a large number of experimental
studies to approach the truth of cytoskeleton gradually, and this article is
aimed at review and summarize some results. Due to the limited background and
level of author, this essay only talks about some experiments and simply
theoretical models.

Some Dynamic Characteristics about Cytoskeleton and Experiments


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