-2927352295525PREPARED BY: Mahra aldhaheri201504013
attendance number: 40
020000PREPARED BY: Mahra aldhaheri201504013
attendance number: 40
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1.INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc528332743 h 22.RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVRIONMENT AND THE SOCIETY PAGEREF _Toc528332744 h 33.THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON HUMANS PAGEREF _Toc528332745 h 34.THE DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTAL SCHOOLS PAGEREF _Toc528332746 h 45.ENVRIONMENTAL VALUES GLOBALLY PAGEREF _Toc528332747 h 56.ENVIRONMENT PROBLEMS PAGEREF _Toc528332748 h 6REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc528332749 h 7
INTRODUCTIONThis is a common field in philosophy that explains the ethical relationship between human and the general environment. It has been a controversial topic that has been under several discussions and debates by the different philosophers and environmentalists. The development of environment ethics arose due to increasing awareness of how technological, industrial and population growth around the world has been negatively affecting the environment. Some of these negative effects include pollution, depletion of natural resources, climate change, degradation of biodiversity etc. What environmental ethics does is that it shows the moral obligation that a human has when faced with protecting and conserving the environment (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2018).
In this report, I will look at 5 things concerning environmental ethics in order to learn more about this controversial topic. The first thing I will discuss about is the relationship between environment and the society. I will see whether this relationship is positive or negative and how it is positive or negative. Secondly, I will talk about the effect the environment has on people. Over here, I will see both the positive effects and the negative effects and see how environmental ethics plays a role in changing or maintaining these effects. Thirdly, I will discuss on the different environment schools that have discussed on the moral obligations that humans have on environment. Fourthly, I will see on the kind of values that environment has globally around the world. Fifthly and finally I will look at the contemporary issues that environment has and what effect these issues have on people, animals or general surrounding.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVRIONMENT AND THE SOCIETYThe environment is considered to be natural or artificial. This means that it is not man-made rather it occurs naturally like the sunlight or the wind. This environment has a strong relationship with the society. This is because, environment plays a major role in determining how the society behaves. Several researchers have tried to discuss this relationship and the essence of it. Example of these famous philosophers who have tried to explain the relationship between environment and the society include: Montesquieu, French writers like Le Play, Demolins and Brunhes, Ecological School by Park and Burgess, the Regional School by H. W. Odum, other German writer like Ratzel, England writers like H.T. Buckle and other American writers like Simple, Dexter, and Huntington (Richard, 2014).
Hence, this shows that there is some form of relationship between environment and the society. This can be seen through how physical conditions of the environment like temperature, rainfall and humidity can affect how the population is spread. Like we can see there is higher population is areas like the mountains due to the high rainfall and good weather and there is low population in areas like the plains or the desert due to the low rainfall and harsh climate. Similarly, the environment conditions can also affect the diet and the dressing of people. Like we can see people in Eskimos tend to wear heavy clothes while those in areas around the equator tend to wear light clothes due to the hot weather. Similarly, we humans also have a relationship with the environment through taking care of it and not polluting it so as to ensure it is not affected by human activities (Richard, 2014).
THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON HUMANSAs we could see before, because human beings have a special relationship with the environment, then it obviously affects the human beings in several different manners. We can see this simply by how the environmental conditions can affect the skin color, body stature and shape, hair color, nose shape, head shape and other physical characteristics or features of the human beings. For instance, people who live in hotter climates tend to have darker skins than those living in colder climates due to the hot sun tanning their skin. Similarly, people in the mountains who rear sheep and goat tend to have a tall and slim bodies compared to those in the plain regions (Amit, 2018).
The environment conditions can also affect how energetic human beings are. For example, in low temperature regions it tends to make people feel lazy, sleepy and less energetic. Their mental work seems to be low during cold weather. While those people in hot weathers tend to be hot-tempered and get angry easier. They tend to always be on their toes due to the hot temperatures. Thereby, showing how weather can even affect human behavior. Moreover, the environment also affects how stressful or calm people tend to be. For example, during hot weather people tend to be more stressful because the hot climate affects the way our brain interacts with our nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. While during cool temperatures, people tend to be less stressed and calmer due to the lower metabolism system acting within our bodies (Amit, 2018).
the different environmental schoolsDifferent school of thoughts have arose on environmental ethics where they discuss on the several sides and arguments on to the extent to which humans have a moral obligation towards the environment. One of these schools is that of anthropomorphic and non-anthropomorphic arguments. In anthropomorphic argument, the philosophers argue that the responsibility of humans towards the environment is only an indirect one. This argument is also known as ‘shallow ecology’. Under this argument, the philosophers argue that humans have some sort of responsibility towards the environment but an indirect one. It is indirect in a sense that humans should only focus on how the environment conditions affect the people. That is, humans can only have a responsibility towards taking care of the environment to the extent of supporting their human life and nothing else (Barry, 2007). I do not agree with this argument because according to my opinion, I believe that humans should not use the environment as just a means to satisfy their needs rather they should conserve the environment just for the sake of it.
A different form of school is the non-anthropomorphic argument. This argument is also known as ‘deep ecology’. Under this argument, it claims that humans have a direct responsibility towards taking care of the environment. This is because, all forms of life including non-human should have an intrinsic value and should be considered to be morally significant persons even if they are not humans. This stand give animal and plants moral values such that humans should not use them as a means to an end but they should be an end for themselves (Barry, 2007). I totally agree with this stance because I believe that humans have a moral obligation to take care of the environment just because it is existent and not for any other reason.
ENVRIONMENTAL VALUES GLOBALLYThe environment offers several benefits and values to people all around the world. One of these values comes from the trees. As commonly known, the presence of high amount of carbon dioxide in the environment is toxic to human health. This can now be seen through global warming where high level of carbon dioxide and other toxic gases are concentrated in the layer above the sky such that there is existent of acid rain in some areas which damage people’s health, crops and animals as well. However, plants tend to absorb this carbon dioxide in the surrounding and purifies the air. It in turn releases oxygen gas which is needed for human breathing and thus survival. Plants absorb approximately 48 pounds of carbon dioxide each year which shows how relevant they are in terms of purifying the air (Rapoport, 1993).
Similarly, the environment also offers great benefits to humans in terms of food. This can be found in form of plants and animals as well. Plants yields fruits which are natural and full of vitamins that are essential for wellbeing of humans. Such fruits include oranges, apples, green vegetables and others which offers humans Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Vitamin K, Calcium, Potassium and other relevant elements needed for good health of human beings. Animals also offer food for human survival. This can be seen from humans getting carbohydrates and proteins from goats, chickens, cows and others (Rapoport, 1993).
environmEnt problemsOur current environment right now is facing several problems that are mainly resulting from human activities. These activities can easily be prevented however, people tend to be selfish and are only focused on self-interest so they continue doing damaging activities that are affecting the environment. Some of these environmental problems include waste disposal. People now tend to over consume resources and dump waste in the public which damages the environment. A good example of this is plastic disposal. Plastic is non-biodegradable so it being thrown in the open environment or in areas like the oceans damages the environment through killing marine life or suffocating the soil. Moreover, nuclear waste disposal happening in some countries also have dangerous health hazards to the environment and to the humans as well (Berhe ;Kleber, 2013).
Another common environmental problem is the climate change. This problem has been under discussion for several years now. It has arose due to global warming which is the increase in atmosphere temperature due to release of fossil fuel and other toxic gasses from the industries in the cities. Climate change has had damaging effects on the environment in terms of melting the polar ice, forming new harmful diseases, increasing frequency of floods, high temperature, raising sea levels, changing seasons and several other effects as well (Berhe ;Kleber, 2013).
REFERENCESAmit, M. (2018). Influence of Environment on Human Society. Retrieved from http://www.sociologydiscussion.com/society/influence-of-environment-on-human-society/2427Barry, J. (2007). Environment and social theory. Routledge.
Berhe, A. A., ; Kleber, M. (2013). Erosion, deposition, and the persistence of soil organic matter: mechanistic considerations and problems with terminology. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 38(8), 908-912.
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2018). Environmental Ethics. Retrieved from https://www.iep.utm.edu/envi-eth/Rapoport, R. N. (1993). Environmental values and the search for a global ethic. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13(2), 173-182.
Richard, R. (2014). Our Role and Relationship with Nature. Retrieved from https://you.stonybrook.edu/environment/sample-page/