2

2.1) Introduction
We have been tasked with the provision of a Digital Market plan for E M Properties. The plan itself has been researched, revised and drafted by Dominic Online Solutions. Dominic Online solutions is comprised of the following members: Mr Ephraim M Pitere, Mr Mpho B Pitere together with Ms Rea R Pitere. The team comprises of Website specialists as well as traditional and Digital marketers. As Dominic online solutions, we offer a lot of services ranging from the creation of digital market plans, website development as well as website hosting. Most of the projects that we have worked on appear on our website and one must proudly say, all of them have positive reviews.

E M Properties approached us so as to come to their rescue as business seems not be doing good anymore. A survey/research was carried out to find out as to what could have been causing this. Upon conclusion of the study undertaken, it was discovered that their downfall was due to the traditional/conventional methods of marketing that they were still employing. As such their marketing efforts were not reaching most of the market that is most suited for their sales/rental/valuations transactions. It was upon these findings that we embarked on devising an up-to-date version of how marketing is carried out nowadays; Online Marketing for Real Estate agencies.

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2.2) Business Demographics
E M Properties is a Real Estate company that is focussed on the assistance of residential housing needs ranging from entry level to top of the scale. They deal with sales, rental as well as valuation needs. Based in Table View, they operate around Parklands, Sunning-dale and Table View areas. It is a real estate business that has been in operation for the past 15 years, been built after Table View and Sunning-dale experienced an influx of people to these areas. This necessitated an increase in the number of residential properties and most of these got developed around Parklands. The business seemed to have done well about five years back, however, they have experienced a decline in their business although the area seemed to extend and expand continuously.
Demographically, elements like age, family situations, income, ethnicity, gender, economic mobility, employment and other demographic factors like business planning to healthcare infrastructure, from education programs to style choices were considered to determine the shape of the society. A diverse market exists made up of a young population that is still in single relationships thereby still requiring basic accommodation type, to single type family homes with multiple bedrooms and plenty of space for children to run. Most of them are employed, earning middle to upper income and mobile, resulting in homes that would have secure parking for their vehicles.
The area itself is surrounded by healthcare as well as educational facilities and shopping centres on all sides. An industrial area that is still in the making exists towards the exterior of Parklands itself. Development is on a continuous basis around these areas; a promise of jobs in the making, and ultimately the population is on the rise and as such, some type of housing would be required over the next couple of decades. All the above-mentioned factors especially economic mobility assures one of a promising future for E M Properties and as such a proper marketing plan would assist them in their quest to attract potential customers whether for sales or rentals.

2

2.1.1 Peace, Good Governance and Leadership
Peace and good
governance is
basement for the
temple of UHC
African leaders,
freedom fighters,
media, Civil
societies should
put first their
citizen than
there political
agenda and interest.

Fig-1- Shows the the primary basement of the temple of Universal Health coverage

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Lack of peace results to the collapse of whole health system, and also create favourable condition for epidemics and outbreaks. this clearly shown in the case of south Sudan, Syria,Somalia and Libya. Not only lack of peace, lack of good governance is responsible in many African countries for not functioning of the health system.
Develop sustainable country capacity in law, policy, planning, leadership, and management. The health of population is dependent on different sectors out of the health system so improving inter-sectoral collaboration is a crucial strategy to protecting and maintaining population health.
Not only Create institution which takes the first step and leadership in the implementation UHC. Ensure easy information flow between all citizens and police makers, leaders in the about UHC.
Making community to be the owner of health system in local, regional or national level.

2.1 Building UHC Temple in Africa
2.1.2 Health Financial
Get rid of beggar
mentality and
aid dependency
culture.
Looking
for Internal
source of income.
Establish
sustainable
income source
internally.
Increase public
and private
domestic
resources.

Fig-2- Shows the secondary basement of the temple of Universal Health coverage

Not only generation of resource, reduce waste is very important, inappropriate wastage usually seen in Africa health care settings. Increase the efficiency of the both public and private health system, wise use of resource for better health out come. Increase domestic mobilization of resource through increasing government spending in the health system.
Use mobilized budgets and resources to reduce out of pocket payment and to make the services affordable to all citizens.
External source of resources should be used as supplement budget for the health system. The sustainability of external source of budget is questionable, no country can have sustainable health system by depending on external source of budget.
Support public private investment in the health sector and create competitive public and private health sector to benefits the large number of population(8,10)

2.1 Building UHC Temple in Africa
2.1.3 Health Information
Health information
is the first
Pillar for Temple
of UHC.
ensures that
countries
collect,
analyze,
disseminate,
and use
timely and
High quality
health
information.

Fig-3- Shows the first pillar of the temple of Universal Health coverage

Priority objectives in health information are to ensures that countries collect, analyze, disseminate, and use timely and high quality health information. The primary objective health information are to Create a culture of evidence based informed decision making.
Health policies, health plan, health budget, hospitals and health facilities should rely on demographic health survey, national health/society health survey, civil registration, vital statistics systems, district health information systems and clinical records.(8,9)

2.1 Building UHC Temple in Africa
2.1.4 Human Resource for Health
Develop and
implement models
to address special
human resources
for health needs.

Conceive and
adapt effective
models for
transformed
education and
maintenance
of skills/
competence.

Fig-4- Shows the secondary pillar of the temple of Universal Health coverage

Ensure countries to have a technically competent, well-deployed health workforce that provides essential services in accordance with standards in a timely, patient centred manner. Primary objectives in human resources for health should not be only to train or educate health professionals, but also Africa should design a system to hold professionals in the Country, to prevent brain drain(9,10).

2.1 Building UHC Temple in Africa
2.1.5 Medical products, Vaccines, and Technologies
Strengthen supply
chain components
to ensure the
uninterrupted
supply of quality-
assured health
commodities,
including
creating a
supportive
environment
for commodity
security and
sustainable
supply chains.

Fig-5- Shows the third pillar of the temple of Universal Health coverage

Ensures that people have sustained access to and make appropriate use of essential medical products that are safe, effective, and assured quality.
Strengthen supply chain components (forecasting, supply planning, procurement, storage, distribution, inventory control and logistics information systems, laboratory harmonization, and waste management) to ensure the uninterrupted supply of quality-assured health commodities, including creating a supportive environment for commodity security and sustainable supply chains.
Strengthen medicines regulatory capacity to protect the public health from counterfeit and substandard products and pharmaceutical sector governance to promote transparency and accountability through appropriate laws, regulations, policies, and standard operating procedures.
Increase and enhance human and institutional capacity to manage pharmaceutical systems and services, including promoting evidence-based use of medications, assuring therapeutic efficacy, protecting patient safety, and slowing the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance(10).

2.1 Building UHC Temple in Africa
2.1.6 Service Delivery

Scale up quality,
coordinated
delivery of
essential,
evidence-
based health
services.

Develop and
implement
Cost effective
essential health
services packages.

Fig-6- Shows the fourth pillar of the temple of Universal Health coverage
ensures access to effective, safe, and high-quality public and private sector services by those who need them, when and where they are needed, with maximum efficiency and patient choice.
Regular Scale up for quality and coordinated delivery of essential, evidence-based services. Develop and implement cost-effective essential health services packages(9,10).

2.1 Building UHC Temple in Africa
2.1.7 Evaluation, Accountability and Transparency
Use evaluation,
accountability
transparency
tools as the
door and
the windows
to regulate
and monitor the
whole Structure
of the temple
of UHC.

Fig-7- Shows the third door and the windows of the temple of Universal Health coverage

Regular monitoring and evaluation to the basement and the pillars of UHC temple. Ensure access to data and information on UHC, as part of societal dialogue and participatory processes. Develop sustainable country capacity in transparency and accountability in law, policy, planning, leadership, and management(10).

Chapter three
3.1 Universal Health Coverage in Botswana
The total population of Botswana was 2,250,000 by the year 2016, in the same year gross national income per population was $15 ranks the five in Africa. Life expectancy at birth by the year 2016 was 66, the African average was 61.2. Total expenditure on health was 5.4 % but WHO recommend Africans should spend 15% of their budget on health(11,12,13).
Botswana categorize three cause of population health problem. One infectious disease, responsible for the cause of death to all age group of population most importantly HIV/AIDS. Two, maternal mortality rate both under five and infant mortality. Diarrhoea and pneumonia are among the top listed cause. Three, non communicable disease(14).

Fig-8 …. Cause of mortality in Botswana
Source; Botswana Health and HIV/AIDS Public Expenditure Review June 15, 2016 Health,

Beside moral initiative, Botswana government is under pressure from high prevalence of HIV, infectious diseases, maternal mortality, Chilled mortality and high health spending. The government of Botswana establish different financial strategies and policy initiatives to improve the efficiency and health outcome.
The central idea behind Botswana policy initiatives is to strength universal health coverage through adequacy, universality, cost effectiveness, affordability, and focus on vulnerable groups.

Health policy initiative in Botswana are:- resource mobilization, increase efficiency, catalyse public/private partnership and improve health insurance(15,16).

Resource Mobilization
Botswana begin to mobilize funding by calculating budget gap and resource need for health. through searching fiscal space for health and increasing government expenditure to health. For example, until 2008, % of GDP allocated to health was only 5.4 compared to south Africa 8.9% and Namibia 7.7%.
Budget gap and resource calculation includes all sector needs such as : primary health care, hospital care, HIV/AIDS response, and policy, planning, monitoring and evaluation, and regulation(15,16).

Catalyse public and private partnership
Transform the Ministry of Health (MoH) from being a pass-through of annual budgets to a contractor by strengthening contracting services and paying for results. Develop a system that gives people the freedom to obtain services from public and private providers.
MoH and Mass aid Scheme (MAS) begin to work in partnership to pay for services. The MoH pays private primary healthcare providers and hospitals to expand coverage and services to the population(15,16).

Improve Health insurance
Redefine the role of commercial MAS to supplement essential health service package (EHSP). Create a national insurance fund that pools contributions from multiple sources of financing. Subsidize MAS enrolment to expand coverage to the entire population. MAS to develop affordable insurance plans to cover EHSP(15,16).
Increase Efficiency
The Botswana MoH begin to asses health system performance in terms of health outcome, service coverage and financial protection to find the gap in efficiency. Regarding health outcome high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, malaria, TB are still the three big infectious diseases in Botswana. Maternal mortality, chilled mortality and infant mortality are the top listed cause of death in Botswana.
Regarding service coverage 94.1% live around 8km reduce of the health facilities the average upper middle income country was 95.4. there is no data on catastrophic health expenditure.
To enhance the efficiency the MoH renew the drug policy, begin to use pool procurement and begin to replace brand by generic drugs.
Increase efficiency and quality by encouraging competition between and among public and private providers.
Create a National Health Technology Assessment Unit to update the EHSP on a regular basis, make recommendations on essential medicines, promote the use of the most cost-effective interventions and issue clinical guidelines. Improve managerial practices and standard operational procedures at all levels to reduce waste and improve operations(15,16).
All Botswana citizens are entitled to free Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and around 66 percent of the HIV-infected population (248,000 people) was receiving ART in 2015. which was a great achievement indeed in reduction in HIV/AIDS related death(15,16).

Fig-8- Percent Cause of death in Botswana Fig-9- Trend Crude mortality rate

Due to those significance policy Initiative, total death in Botswana begin to reduced from 23,600 in 2002 to 13,200 in 2013. In terms of crude mortality rate, reduced from 1.24 to 0.65 percent in the same respective year.
Regarding Cause of death in 2002, 46.6 percent of death in Botswana is HIV/AIDS related death but due to remarkable achievement in improving access to HIV treatment, HIV/AIDS related death in Botswana reduced to 33.3 percent in 2013.

Chapter four
4.1 Conclusion
The 21st century, challenges of universal health coverage is to provide quality health service for all in limited resource setting. There is no single fit model to achieving universal health coverage in Africa. All policies and strategies should consider each country local conditions. Even though , Africa is highly diversified continent most of problems are common for all countries. Africa should work on the basements of universal health coverage such as peace, good governance and health financing. In addition, Africa should also give attention on strengthening the pillars of UHC temple such as Health information, health human resource, medical products(health technologies) and service delivery.

2

2.4 GREEN BUILDING MATERIALS
In the building, eco friendly materials (also known as green building materials) are those in which low environmental damage activities have been carried out for their production, placement and repairs. They must be durable, reusable or recyclable, must contain recyclable materials in their structure and must come from resources in the area in which the construction activity takes place–they must be regional material. These materials must also be natural and should not be damaged by cold, heat or humidity.

2.5 SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS MOST WIDELY USED FOR CONSTRUCTION
2.5.1 SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIALS:
Wood is the material with the minimum environmental effects on its manufacturing and life cycle and must be certified to ensure that it is produced and originally sustainable.

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Fig-0.4 Renewable Materials in Construction Market
2.5.2 ISOLATION RENEWABLE MATERIALS:
They are fully recyclable and compostable, such as cellulose, which can be extracted from discarded newspapers or papers. They can not produce waste and must achieve the highest efficiency in temperature regulation.
2.5.3 PAINTS AND WOOD TREATMENTS:
These have to be natural with no substances harming the ozone layer and without solvents or any other chemical products.

Fig-0.5 reuse of waste materials

2.5.4 WASTE MATERIALS
Waste materials generated for the production of construction materials in other sectors, such as steel waste (marble, slate, etc.).Also, we have wastes generated by manufacturing processes like ashes or mud that are used, or the urban solid ones.
2.5.5 OTHER ORIGINAL TECHNIQUES
Such manufacturing concrete with recycled tire rubber; using sewage plant mud to make bricks or remains of wood and cork, and in particular vegetable fibers (bamboo, coconut, etc.) that once blended with cement are also used as insulators.

Fig-0.6 Elastogran, 2007
2.6 SELECTING SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIALS
The amount of energy needed to produce building materials varies. The material’s embodied energy tries to calculate the energy that enters the entire life cycle of the building material. Aluminum, for example, has a very high level of embodied energy due to the high percentage of electrical power to be used in its production from mined bauxite ore; recycled aluminum usually requires far less energy to be refabricated. The overall environmental effect of a building is reduced by choosing materials with low average embodied energy. Transport energy is saved by using local materials on imports of the same type.
• Adapt Existing Buildings to New Uses:
Most buildings survive the objective they were designed to achieve. Many of these buildings, if not all, can be transformed to new applications at a cheaper cost than new buildings.

• Incorporate Reclaimed or Recycled Materials:
Many building materials are easily recycled into new materials, such as wood, steel and glass. Some can be entirely used in the new structure, such as brick or windows. Equipment, especially office partition systems, can also be moved easily from one location to another.

• Use Materials That Can Be Recycled:
When designing the building and choosing the building materials, focus on ways to use recyclable materials. This preserves the energy inherent in their production.

• Reuse Non-Conventional Products as Building Materials:
Unconventional building materials such as recycled tires, pop bottles and farm waste are widely available. These products decrease the need for new landfills and have a lower embodied energy that is intended to replace conventional materials.

• Size Buildings and Systems Properly:
Architects are encouraged to design as much as possible around standardized building material sizes. In the United States. S., this standard is based on a plywood sheet of 4’x8. ‘ Excessive cutting of materials into non-modular spaces results in more waste.

• Employ Nontoxic Materials
The use of non – toxic materials is essential for the health of the occupants of the building, who normally spend more than three – quarters of their time indoors. The adhesives used to make many common building materials can release chemical compounds into the air for years after the original building.

2.7 POTENTIAL USE OF PLASTIC WASTE AS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

Many studies on the alternative use of plastic waste in different types of products have been reported and published. Plastic waste for high – grade resins was recycled from used and spoiled plastics, such as: industrial products, home appliances, cloths (textiles), mulches and films. Accordingly, plastic waste treatment and reprocessing techniques could be divided into four major categories which are re-cycling, mechanical, chemical and energy recovery.

2.8 PLASTIC AGGREGATES AND PLASTIC FIBER IN CONCRETE MIX

Briefly , there are two types of plastic waste, plastic aggregates (PA) and plastic fibers (PF), which are most often used in building materials ,PAs are used for the replacement of coarse (CA) and fine (FA) aggregates.
Physical properties of concrete, including density, slump value, mechanical properties, splitting tensile strength, compressive strength, young module, flexural strength, abrasion resistance, impact resistance and pulse velocity, durability properties including resistance change.

2.9 GOOD EXAMPLE

1.5 Million Bottles Used to Build It!
A building some call ” the first plastic bottle structure built in the world ” was unveiled in Taiwan. This incredible building, known as the EcoARK, was built using a whopping 1,5 million PET bottle to raise awareness of the importance of recycling.
The EcoARK stands on three floors and has an amphitheater, an exhibition hall and a screen of falling water collected during the rainy season for air conditioning purposes.
The designers claim that the building is ” the lightest, most mobile, most breathable environmental miracle in the world, ” yet they insist that it is strong enough to handle typhoons and earthquakes-but it is certain that recycling enthusiasts are blown away. According to The China Post, the EcoARK was commissioned by the Taiwan – based Far Eastern Group three years ago at a price tag of around US$ 3 million, based on the three objectives of ” reduce, reuse and recycle. ” The company will donate the green structure to the city next month, where it will be use as exhibition hall during the 2010 Taipei Int’l Flora Expo in November.

2.9 CONCLUSION
The green building components include material efficiency, efficiency in water, energy efficiency, efficiency in indoor air quality, waste reduction. It is clear from the above that all efforts to preserve environmental resources are considering progress towards green and sustainable materials. Therefore, GRIFFA or LEED rating systems require the use of sustainable materials.

Green parameters building
Sustainable site encourages regionally appropriate landscaping
1
Water efficiency Smarter use of water inside and out
2
Energy and atmosphere use of renewable and clean sources of energy, generated onsite or off-site.
3
Materials and resources Selection of products and materials sustainably grown, processed, generated and shipped 4
Location and linkages built near already-existing infrastructure, community resources and transit
5
Innovation in design new and innovative technologies and strategies to improve a building’s performance beyond what is required by LEED 6

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