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2.6 GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI
Like all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. (Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.
The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. (Wang et al., 2009). This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E. albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris). The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.
The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.
2.7 INCUBATION PERIOD
The time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.

2.7.1 DISCOVERY OF ANTIBIOTICS
• History of antibiotics – 1
19th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch
• History of antibiotics – 2
Plant extracts
– Quinine (against malaria)
– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.g. in dysentery)
Toxic metals
– Mercury (against syphilis)
– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)
• Dyes
– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)
– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936)
• History of antibiotics – 3
Paul Ehrlich
• started science of chemotherapy
• Systematic chemical modifications
(“Magic Bullet”) no. 606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)
• Selective toxicity.
• Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index
• History of antibiotics – 4
Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the
killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)
• observed by others – never exploited
• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945
• First used in a patient: 1942
• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives
• History of antibiotics – 5
Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces
– 20 other antibiotics include. neomycin, actinomycin
2.8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICS
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).
-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones.
-Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.
-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.

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2.9 ROLE OF ANTIBIOTICS
Based on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al., 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities.
(Martinez, 2008). Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008). that was

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2.What is the theme or moral of the film “Simon Birch”
There are themes and morals to every film, which teaches the viewer a lesson. In the movie “Simon Birch”, the theme is that faith and determination can you bring a long way. Throughout the film, Simon never lost faith, that he was made the way he was for a reason and kept saying he was going to be a hero and God’s instrument. Furthermore, even when Joe kept doubting him and telling him he wasn’t made for a reason and that it’s all just a load of rubbish, and even after Mrs. Wentworth died, he continued to believe that he was made for a purpose; to be a hero, even though he was small. Also, when Simon said “God has a plan for all of us”, Joe interjected and said, “There is no God”. Simon then replies with “Don’t Say That”, which shows that he is insistent that God has a plan for him, and he doesn’t lose belief in himself that he can’t be a hero. In addition, this was the theme because in Simon Birch, even though the whole city was hating on him after what he had done at the performance, he continued to have faith and determination to become a hero. This was effective because it shows that Simon’s faith made him believe that he was going to do a great thing, and he had the determination to do it. Even when all the kids were laughing at him on the bus, they were saved by Simon, which ended up killing him. In real life, if you have determination and faith, you can do most of the things you dream of doing. For example, in the film “The Scarlet Ibis”, Doodle and his brother’s determination to get Doodle to walk happens because they felt like it was hopeless in the beginning but when they had faith and determination in their mind, their self-esteem rose and Doodle was able to walk. This is relevant to real life because if Michael Jackson had given up when he got rejected by his High School’s Basketball team, he would have never gone to the NBA. Moreover, its relevant to real life because if Cristiano Ronaldo didn’t try to get better and have faith, he would have continued to have difficulty playing with other Soccer players, who were just as good as him. Thusly proving that you need determination and faith for everything in life because having determination can get you anywhere in life. Overall, the moral of movies, teach the viewers a lesson about life such as Simon Birch, which is similar to “The Scarlet Ibis” The film “The Scarlet Ibis” was similar, as the producers of the film showed the theme determination and faith. In the movie “The Scarlet Ibis”, Doodle’s brother inspires him to be able to walk and be normal like everyone else who is able to walk. Instead of denying his brother’s infallibility, Doodle began to believe in his brothers in infallibility. In addition, through determination, Doodle started learning how to do other things and even if he was horrible at it, he continued to try at it. The movie “Simon Birch” was similar to the movie “The Scarlet Ibis” because, in the film, Simon has faith and determination that he was going to do something great, which was saving the kids in the bus and that he was the way he was for a reason. This shows that both of the main characters had determination and faith to do something in their lives and they both got what they wanted. Also, Simon is similar to Doodle because both of them depend on someone for faith and determination. Simon depended on God for faith and determination and Doodles determination came from his brother. Furthermore, the themes are similar as both of them never gave up once no matter what other people thought about them. Lastly, the film’s themes are both similar, since they both indicate that faith and determination can bring you a long way. In conclusion, there is no doubt that all films give the viewer a moral and lesson such as faith and determination, such as the movie “Simon Birch”.

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2.2 Theories and model of staff training
According to Mitchell (2013, p.31), as the training process is required very much for the skills development of the staffs, the staff training development management needs to follow various types models in order to plan a proper training process. The various models of training also help them to provide the employees proper training in an effective manner. The management of staff training needs to follow various types of effective models for training such as Systems models, Instructional system development model and the transactional model.
Systems models
As stated by Kaslow (2014, p.19), systems model is one of the most effective models of staff training as it helps the staff training management to improve the performance level of staffs, employees. By following this model, the management can make their employees meet the business purpose of the industry. This model of training has five steps like analyse, designing, development, proper execution and proper development.
Analyze
Analyzing is the first step in this model and it aims to focus on the needs of the training. In this step, the management can analyze the performance level of the staffs and can understand in which area, the employees lack the most. This step also helps them to understand the employee, groups who needs the training and helps them to determine the cost of the training, measure the performance level based on the requirements of the organization.
Development
This third step helps the organisation to assist the staffs that they can learn about the activities of industry properly. It also makes the staffs understand about the delivery method and makes the staff training management to examine the materials for training and to check the information provided to staffs in order to ensure that they can accomplish the goals, objectives of the industry (Kaslow, 2014, p.31).
Proper execution
It is the fourth steps in this model of training. By following this steps, the hospitality industry can make it sure that they have properly executed the training procedures and it provide an assurance that their training procedures have achieved its goals, purpose. The wrong decisions in this step can lead the industry towards major business, loss.

Proper evaluation of development
As per the opinion of Ford (2014, p.19), this step is considered as the last and final step in this model. By following this step, the management of staff training can evaluate the success of their training by measuring the level of performance growth of the staffs effectively. It also helps them to make necessary amendments by viewing the flaws in the previous process in order to ensure the good level of training. This step also helps them to make it sure that their staffs can easily improve the satisfaction level of the customers.

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2.3 Concept of development
According to Gray and Truesdale (2015, p.401), the concept of development is also very important for the hospitality industry as it determines, the goodwill, business profit of the industry. Staff development is a development process for staffs that ensure the business development of the hospitality industry. On the other hand, the concept of staff development also indicates towards the approaches of professional development as staff development procedures. Therefore, the staff development procedures are necessary for the organisation as it also helps them to improve the level of capability of the staffs. Apart from this, staff development process also helps the employees, staffs to develop their professional standard, skills, Knowledge in order to meet the objectives, goals, business purpose of the industry.
On the contrary, as per the opinion of Zijlmans et al. (2015, p.611), staff development process also helps the employee to improve their career graph and to have a good position in the organisation. Proper development process also helps them to improve their skills based on the requirements of the business industry that they can bring a huge profit to their organisation. Proper development process also helps the staffs to meet the satisfaction level by improving their skills; behavioural attitude and level, of communication Staff development also lead the staffs towards the high-quality performance that is very much important to enhance business globally (Mitchell, 2013, p.31).
On the other hand, staff development indicates towards the planning for professional development procedures that can be beneficial both for the staffs and for the organisation. Apart from this, staff development also helps the organisation to have efficient employees, the guidance of expert for their organisation and this kind of approaches also help the organisation to have strong support from their employee and it will be beneficial for them.

2.4 Theories and models of development
As per the opinion of Huffman et al. (2014, p.448), hospitality industry needs to follow various kinds of model for their staff development process as it helps them to enrich their staff development process in an effective manner. On the other hand, the proper implementation of various models also helps them to enhance skills of the staffs and by following this model, the management can make their staffs fully involved in their business activities. Therefore, the management of hospitality industry needs to follow various types of staff development models such as Kirkpatrick’s model of Staff Development, individually guided staff development model and so on. Staff development model is a kind development model that mainly focuses on the development procedures for the training of the staffs, workers. The development model shows the management effective ways to improve their training process. In addition, it also helps the staff development management to set their planning for training in an effective way. On the other hand, as per the opinion of Zijlmans et al. (2015, p.611), staff development training is essential for the business firms, hotel industries as it also helps them to accomplish their business objectives and to enhance the level of service. It has been observed that Kirkpatrick’s model of Staff Development is considered as the most effective model for the staff development planning. The development model of Kirkpatrick aims to focus on the various factors such as reaction, behavioural attitude, learning and results.
Reaction
This phase is considered as the first phase in this model and it has been observed that these steps help the leaders, trainer to observe the reaction of the trainees positively. It also reminds the management about the necessity of feedback from the employees, staffs in order to ensure their development training is effective enough or not. The feedback from the staffs also helps them to understand the area they lack (Gray and Truesdale 2015, p.401). The feedback session also indicates towards the suggestion of the staffs in order for the further improvement in the staff development process .
Behavioural attitude
This step also helps the management to focus on the behavioural attitude of the staffs. It also helps the industry to make them understand that they need to maintain the good behavioural attitude towards the customers (Ford, 2014, p.19). It also encourages the employees, staffs to develop their communication level as it also an important part of the behavioural attitude of the employees.
Learnings
This step also helps the staff development management to check the knowledge level of staffs and it also helps them to understand how much information their staffs, employees have collected or not. The learning session also helps them to understand that whether they learned everything, whether they understand their role, responsibility or not.
Results
This step is considered as the final step of this model as it helps the industry to measure their investment in staff development process (Huffman et al. 2014, p.441). It also helps the management to compare the outcome, performance growth of the employees, staffs between the pre staff development process and post staff development process.
2.5 SERVQUAL model
According to Mitchell (2013, p.31), SERVQUAL model aims to focus on the customer satisfaction. By following this model, the hospitality industry can evaluate the various dimensions of the service quality such as tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy.
Tangibility
This model helps the industry to focus on the tangibility of their products, services in order to ensure that they are offering good quality products to the customers. On the other hand, it also helps them to notice that the services they are offering can fulfill the need of the customers.
Reliability
The management also needs to look at the fact that they can maintain the safety, security at their workplace. They need to provide their customers such a good quality service that they can maintain trustworthiness towards their customers.
Responsiveness
This step of this model also helps the management to notice that customers are accepting their products and they can satisfy the needs of the customers.
Assurance
This model also helps them to maintain their service quality. It also helps them to provide the customers with an assurance that they would get the best quality services.
Empathy
This dimension aims to focus on the activities of the industry and it makes the management of hospitality industry to understand the fact that they need to give more focus on the problems, issues, complaints of the customers. It also reminds them the fact that they need to solve the problems of the customers accordingly.

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