A.sewing.needle is.a long slender.tool with.a pointed.tip. The.needle must.be able.to penetrate the material.being sewn, by.pushing the yarns.aside according to the.application,.without.damaging it. Modern needles.are manufactured from,high carbon steel.wire, nickel.or.gold plated. For.corrosion resistance 12.

Figure 2.6.1 sewing needle
Sewing.needle is the basic,element for sewing.fabric and garment. There are.two types.of sewing needle, one for hand.sewing and another for sewing.machine. The major difference between.the two is the location of the “eye”. The hand.needle has.the.eye at the back end.of the needle and.that needle pulls the thread.through.the fabric. The machine needle has the.eye at the front end and that needle pushes the thread.through the fabric 13.

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2.6.2 Basic Features.of Sewing Needle:
The shank.is the.part of the needle that fits.into your sewing machine, with.the flat side to the back.The blade is.what.determines the needle size. (For example, a size needle.has a blade that is .75 mm in diameter.).The shaft is the “body” of the.needle, and the.groove that runs the length of the shaft holds the.needle thread.The point and.tip of the needle,refer to the size, shape and length all of which.vary based on the type of needle.The scarf of the needle,is an indentation on the backside that allows the.bobbin hook to smoothly grab the thread under.the sewing machine throat plate to create a proper stitch 14.

Figure 2.6.2 features of sewing needle

Ball.Points – Light.Ball Point is used.for sensitive fabrics such as knits, to prevent.damage to the loops. This is crucial for maintaining.the fabric’s elasticity. Medium ballpoint.and heavy ballpoint.are used for.fabrics containing.stretchable yarns. While sewing.the threads.are displaced not pierced. The needle pushes.between the fabric yarns rather.than “cutting rough” the yards 15.

• Ballpoint needles
Ballpoint needle.for heavier, looser sweater.knits, highly elastic fabrics, like
Spandex, or Lycra. 16.

There.are.two.needle sizing systems: American.and European. American needle.sizes.range from 8 to 19, and.European sizes.range.from 60 to 120. The larger.the.number, the larger the blade.of the needle. Often you will see.both sizing.numbers on the.needle package, such as 60/8.and 70/10 17.

Figure 2.6.4 Sewing Machine Needle Sizes
We are using dpx1 needle in our thesis work and needle size is 18.
• The American.system.uses 8 to 19, 8 being.a fine needle and 19 being.a thick heavy.needle.
• European sizes.range from.60 to 120, 60 being a fine needle.and 120 being a.thick heavy.needle 18.

The stitching process is the attachment.of different parts of the textile fabrics pieces. In this work place there are many operators.who perform single operation. All this factor decides what parts of textile fabric can be sewn.at that station21.

The stitching of denim jeans.is a labour intensive and complex process. Sewing machines used to process denim are.both interesting and complex 22.

• Stitching of inside seams
Joining the two pieces of textile.fabrics together face-to-face by sewing.through both
pieces, leaving a seam allowance.with raw edges inside the work. Machine stitching that
encloses the.raw edges.

• Stitching pocket hem
Stitching a hem on the.pocket opening, for example so that you first fold 1 cm to the.wrong
side and then again 2 cm, press.and stitch. The size.of the hem.can.vary a lot depending on
how the pocket.should look.

• Stitching zipper with J-stitch
A machine similar to the.pocket hem is used ,but this time topstitching.a zipper using a J-stitch .This operation is often semi-automated.and uses a programmable lock stitch sewing machine.to give a consistent shape because it is a highly visible section of the.garment.

• Stitching of side seams
Stitching the side.seams of the jeans together .The machine use for.his operaion also uses a tractor foot. This enables the machine to.climb excessive seam thicknesses where all the fabrics come.together in one join. It provides great.stability when clamping down on the fabric and reduces the possibility.of missed stitches.

• Bottom leg hems
In this operation the front.panel of denim jeans at the bottom side the hem is folded and stitched.

• Attaching waistband
Another important operation is attaching.the waistband to the main body of the jeans. The machine has two needles and the.waistband is fed through a continuous folder, thus reducing operator handling.

• Making belt loop
The fabric is folded through.a dedicated belt loop folder. The belt loops are fed through the.folder, producing a seam.

• Attaching belt loop
Belt loops on this garment are.attached using a semi-automatic belt looping machine. A continuous roll of finished.beltloop, is cut to length and a clamp holds the belt loop and presents it to the machine. Two needles are employed on this machine to sew.both ends of the belt loop in one operation. Again, operator handling is reduced where.only the body of the garment is held, making operation faster, more accurate and more efficient.

• Bar tacking for reinforcing
Exactly as for stitching the belt loop, this is a.similar machine but uses only one needle and is classified as a mechanised (fixed cycle) unit because when the treadle is pressed, the machine cycle cannot be interrupted until.the operation is finished.

• Pockets and labels
Semi automatic machines.require less human involvement and do more of the work autonomously .Such machines are used.to attach pockets and to attach labels to the jeans 22.

2.8.1 Seam efficiency
Seam efficiency mainly depends.upon the dimensional ; surface characteristics of the sewing thread, the tensile behavior of denim fabrics ; sewing thread and the.machine ; process parameters. It was reported previously be observed that with the increase.in Lycra percentage the seam efficiency increases. The increase in seam efficiency.with Lycra percentage is because of the higher elasticity and better compatibility.of the sewing thread with the denim, which subsequently increases the seam efficiency. This is in accordance with the.earlier result (i.e. The higher percentage of Lycra in the denim increases the fabric elasticity and.seam performance) obtained by Gurarda and Meric.

Seam efficiency is usually measured according to ASTM-D 1683 method on the.Instron tensile tester. Seam efficiency was calculated.as the percent seam strength over fabric strength by using the following formula 23.

Seamed fabric strength
—————————— X 100
Original fabric strength

We can use Seam efficiency.to measure the strength (durability) along the seam line. Durability is defined as necessary to satisfactory seam’s functional.performance, and efficient seams are assumed to be more durable.than weak ones.

22.Denim manufacturing, finishing and application
23. Gurarda A and Meric B, “Sewing needle penetration forces and elastanefibre
damage during the sewing of cotton/elastane woven fabrics”, Text Res J, 75 (8), 628-


2.7. Global Overview of Human Trafficking
As Wegayehu. ,T (2014) cited in Laczko, (2005) stated that “an estimated of 600,000 to 800,000 men and women and are trafficked across global borders every year, and this report did not include millions who are victims of trafficking within their nations. Furthermore (Wagaayehu, 2014) asserted that, all East African countries have recognized as source transit and destination country.
Adding to the above (Wegayehu, 2014) cited in (Endeshaw 2006) revealed that trafficking is not a new phenomenon, but it has recently reemerged globally, furthermore author listed Ethiopia among countries affected by the practice trafficking in person. (Allais, 2004) stated, trafficking of person has evolved in to one of the most tragic feature of contemporary global migration and the situation of victims is described as follows:
“Victims of trafficking were exposed to physical and psychological violence and abused, denied labor right. Are illegal before the law and are often found in a forced and unwanted relationship or dependency with their traffickers”.


2. (a). Assess base on Mr Alex’s understanding that economic cycle is not moving in tandem with the property cycle when business improves.

As a registered valuer, I will further discuss with Mr. Alex Pang on the understanding of economic cycle and property cycle.
Economic or business does not grow in a straight line. It is fluctuating between the periods of positive growth and negative growth, which is known as economic growth or business cycle.
The economic cycle or business cycle is based on the relationship between supply and demand level, and economic activity while the demand level is affected by the factors such as fluctuating prices of shop rental. This statement is proved by Richard Barras and is shown in the figure below.

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Figure?Barras’ (1994) model on economic analysis

From Barras’ (1994) model on economic analysis, there is a relationship between property cycles and business cycles. However, business cycle will not moving in tandem with property cycle. This is due to the nature of property development. The property developments and investments are related to the economic and business frameworks.

Figure: Barras’ (1994) six stage model

The Barras’ (1994) six stage model analysis is the simplified version of explanation. It is beginning with the upturn business or economic activities. This cause an increase of employment rate. In short run, the demand for the property will be increase rapidly cause the rental price rising due to higher employment rate or any business activities.
When business growth is achieved peak in economy, the property demand is also strengthen and receive the peak but the supply will remain fairly tight. In this situation, the property value will continue to increase due to the long lead times in bringing forward a new development. However, the supply of property in real estate will lag far behind as longer time is needed to supply the properties. The property growth is unable to catch up with the business growth.
When the property supply achieves peak in economy, the business will start to turn weak. Business will be turn into the recession stage and usually accompanied by a tightening of monetary policy to against the inflationary effect. When the economy turns weak, the demand will be decrease follow by the fall in rental price and property value.
Thus, the demand of properties is a reflection of the short term and long term changes in the economy. The economic cycle is not moving in tandem with the property cycle when business improves.

2.(b). Assess market analysis required for the out-of-town retail development.
In this case study, the demand of proposed out-of-town retail development need to be identify through the access of market analysis. There are 7 steps to the market analysis which are required for the out-of town retail development. The sevens steps are listed below with the explanation.
a. Property productivity analysis
In this step, the features of the proposed property development which are affect the productive capabilities and the potential use of land will be identify. The features can be in term of physical characteristics, legal characteristics and locational.
There are some example of criteria which can be used for property productivity analysis which are demographics, economics health indicators and commercial property overview. These analysis can quantifies the potential demand and the position of a property.

b. Market delineation
Market Delineation is that market segment identified to be most likely interested in the subject real estate and the services it provides. Thus, market analysis combines market segmentation and product disaggregation. (The Appraisal of Real Estate,2010)
Market delineation consist the consideration of the most suitable development plan throughout several research and analysis of neighbourhood continuity and environment features. For example, what form of development can be considered, whether is residential or commercial development and who is the target market.
There are 3 common techniques which have been used which are catchment areas, gravitational models and customer spotting. The catchment area boundary is adjusted according to the specific geographic, demographic and economics characteristics of community in Jalan Kuala Langgat. The gravitational models is a variation of a catchment area circles which determine the effects and impacts of the neighbour of existing retail center. Customer spotting is a more specific form of catchment areas method to determine the distances and linkages by doing survey.

c. Forecast demand
Forecast demand can use the economic base analysis as the basis in order to anticipate market demand. The population can be established as base analysis . For instance, more population will demand for more houses. Besides that, segment demand also can be analysis throughout the household income level and employment opportunities which means that more employment will increase the household income and people will have more effort and more savings to buy house.
In the case study, there are some forecast demand factors need to be determine:
1. Proposed Area of Population and Households
2. Mean Income per Household in Proposed Area
3. Income Spent on Retail Goods ; Services
4. Most Probable Percentage of Retail Expenditures for Subject-Center type goods

d. Competitive supply analysis
Identify all competitive retail space in the subject’s trade area is important to achieve a good market analysis process. The number of existing competitors may affect the number of properties supply and price. The competitive supply analysis consist the research of resale market which include existing and vacant houses, new houses for sale, current lot supply and unrecorded lot supply. Catalogue all key physical, location, and economic characteristics for each comparable. These analysis is important for Mr Alex Pang to planned the type of proposed development.

e. Equilibrium or residual analysis
This is a hard task. In this task, the existing demand and supply have to be estimated, including the future demand and supply. Estimate of the amount of excess demand or supply of space in the trade area for which the retail property will compete to estimate the additional space needed. For example, the future market conditions can be estimate and current surplus of retail space may be absorbed in the future.

Figure: Example of Steps in Residual Demand Analysis

f. Forecast subject capture
This step is to make a comparison between the product of proposed property and other property development. The estimation can be calculated by accessing the market share or location and amenity rating. Forecast subject capture is important to compare performance of the most comparable competition and also compare average performance of competitive subdivision.
Below is the example of calculation of subject capture.
Share of Market
Based on size of the Center
•Example: 5-acre in subject center,
4-acre iin existing competitors,
9-acre total SF in trade area,
•Subject Capture is 5/9 or 55.56%

g. Financial modelling
This is the final step in market analysis. This is considered as financial feasibility study. Financial modelling consists of financial statement forecasting which is usually the preparation of detailed company-specific models. These are very important for decision making purposes and also financial analysis. Mr Alex Pand has to consider various type of development for his land based on his financial feasibility study.


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