1931-1940 – Creation and formation of the Central Botanical Garden
Resolution of the Council of People’s Commissars of the BSSR
The question of creating a botanical garden was set in the Belarusian Academy of Sciences (BelAN) in 1930.
February 23, 1931 at a meeting of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR (Protocol No. 5) on the organization of the botanical garden was made by Mikhail Nikolaevich Goncharik. On April 17, 1932, the Council of People’s Commissars of the BSSR adopted resolution No. 102 approving the creation of a botanical garden under the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR and instructing the Minsk City Executive Committee to determine the boundaries of the botanical garden:
The Savet of the People of Kamchiaara is: 1. Seized by the Batanicchna Gardens, in the Garden of the Settled Garcavetes, in the autumn of 1931, intermarry, and the iksam i is stored in the garden plan i darichyci Minksamu garadav savetu russkom Belaruskai Akademiaiai naduke dekadna tarmin seta delatova stalya between Batanichnaga garda on padstave pradstalenenaga preeekta-plan.
April 17, 1932 is considered the official date of the formation of the Garden.
For the construction of the Garden was assigned 106 hectares of territory near the Park of Culture and Recreation (modern park named after Chelyuskintsev) at the address Borisovskiy trakt, 90. These lands were included in the Minsk city line relatively late. On the plans of Minsk at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. you can see that this area was outside the city. There were forests and fields of the Slepyanka estate. It is known that up to the eighteenth century the estate belonged to the princes of the Radziwills, and then, until the beginning of the 20th century. – To the Vankovichi. In 1923 it was decided to expand the urban area at the expense of these nationalized lands and in the late 1920s their development began. In the autumn of 1931. The decision of the City Council to allocate a site for the botanical garden was adopted. The City Executive Committee also decides to install a fence between the Botanical Gardens and the park. It was supposed,
The territory allocated for the construction of the botanical garden was covered with a small pine forest.
1932-1934 were the period of the formation of the Garden: the formation of its collective, structure, lines of scientific activity, the collection of plant collections and the development of a plan for the development of the territory.
Stepan Pavlovich Melnik
On March 1, 1933, the Presidium of BelAN appointed Doctor of Biology, Professor Stepan Pavlovich Melnik as Director of the Botanical Garden (Minutes No. 10 of the meeting of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR of 29.03.1933) (TsNA NANB .F.1., Op.1.D.21. L.29). It was Stepan Pavlovich who developed the principles and scientific directions of the work of the Garden, began to form scientific personnel and technical personnel. SPMelnik was not only a talented scientist, but also an excellent organizer, which is very important for the head of the botanical garden, the specificity of which requires research and a large amount of production work.
Stepan Pavlovich in a fairly short time managed to organize works on the development of the botanical garden, the formation of collections, the construction of greenhouses and greenhouses, water supply collections, harvesting of soil and many other kinds of work, without which it is inconceivable to grow plants and maintain the collections in good condition. Already for two years (1933-1934) profiling of avenues, a road network, was mastered 8 hectares, on which nurseries and an arboretum, a pomologic garden, hedges were laid. It is known, for example, that woody plants occupied an area of ??4.56 hectares, a school of wood – 2.7ha, exposition areas – 1.1ha, a collection of willows and poplars – 0.68 ha, raspberries – 0.5, creams – 0.15g, nursery fruit plants – 1 hectare, decorative sector – 0.42 hectares, the area of ??Central Asia – 0.36, introductory site – 0.4 ha, creeping garden plants – 0.15 hectares, the parterre occupied 1 hectare. For the cultivation of a new culture in the BSSR – grapes – 0,4 he was mastered. Under the direction of Professor IG Vasilkov, a phylogenetic garden was created on an area of ??0.97 hectares. The first list of woody plants that should have been introduced into the Garden was compiled by Professor AL Novikov 1. As a result of mass seeding of 292 samples of woody-shrubby plants, 3908 plants were grown in 2 years (TsNA NANB, Op.1, F. 25, D. 1).
Along with the great work on the construction of the Garden, the team carried out a variety of scientific work, not only in the field of plant introduction. The scientific subjects included the study of the flora and vegetation of the BSSR, research in the field of taxonomy, mycology, lichenology, plant physiology, horticulture, genetics. Due to these circumstances, the Central Botanical Garden has become a “cradle” for some modern institutes and laboratories of the NAS of Belarus. Individual structural units of the botanical garden were subsequently transferred to other institutions. So, created by. – the correspondent of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR SP Melnik, the departments of woody plants, flora, spore plants, herbarium were subsequently transferred from the Centralized Library System as independent structural units to the Institute of Biology of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR.
Among the most significant scientific researches carried out by the Sada research team, we note the study of the flora of the BSSR and the identification of plants useful for the national economy, the study of lichens and mosses of the indigenous flora of the BSSR, the hybridization of poplars, the identification of species of trees and shrubs for green construction, influence of photoperiodism on the growth and development of woody plants. The task was set to publish the “Flora of the BSSR” and create a central herbarium of the BSSR.
Moreover, the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the BSSR planned the activities of the Central Botanical Gardens as a leading research center among the related institutions of Belan (TsNA NANB, Op.1, F. 25, D. 1).
The main activities of the Garden were determined: the formation of collections of wood and grassy plants useful for the national economy, the study of the flora of the BSSR, the introduction and selection of fruit and berry horticultural crops, educational and economic activities, and the development of the territory designated for the botanical garden.