1. network. 2. Network components The following are the

1.  Introduction

computer networks are the core of modern communications. People are connected
to each other through their devices such as handphone, computer, tablet or
laptop which are connected to computer network. All the modern devices are
designed to connect to network including some of the home appliances such as,
TV, Smart door, home CCTV, and etc.

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network allows two or more computers to be linked in order to share resources,
exchange data and electronic communications. Computer networks are set up in
offices, hospitals, schools, buildings, and houses for different purposes. Each
of the set up may use different network design to meet the different network

In this paper
I will like to explain the components required by a computer in order to
operate on a network.


2.  Network components


The following are the network components required :

a.       Bridge


bridge is a device that connects two local-area networks
(LANs) to transfer the data. Bridge also happens at layer 2 on OSI 7layers that
is data link layers, which controls data flow,
handles transmission errors, provides physical addressing, and manages access
to the physical medium.


Bridges can be either remote or local. Local bridges
provide indirect connection between multiple LAN in the same area and remote
bridges is connect multiple LAN in the different area, and that usually over
telecommunication lines.


b.       Router


is a device are used to connect multiple networks together. We usually use
router to connect network devices to internet and to share internet connection
among many users. 


Depending on
networking plans, we can choose router with different capabilities, such as:

Firewall: used for examines incoming data and
protects network against attack.

Virtual private network (VPN): used for users
safely using the networks

IP phone network: that used the voice and
conferencing technology to simply and unify the communications.



c.       DSL


modem (Digital Subscriber Line) is a device are used for users uses to existing
the telephone lines to transport high-bandwidth data, such as multimedia and
video, to service subscribers. DSL provides dedicated, point-to-point, public
network access.



d.       Switch


Switches are
used to connect multiple devices (computers, printers, servers, and etc ) on
the same network within a building or campus.
Switch serves as a controller, enabling the network devices communicate to each
other efficiently. Through information sharing and resource allocation.
Switches also can improve the company to increase productivity, trim business
expenses, improve security and customer service.





e.       Network
interface card (NIC)


is a device that is installed in computer for enables connect to network. Network
cables would be connected to NIC port to enable a computer to connect to













is a device that used for a private network and not have any connections that
means, (No internet access). When a hub receives a data from a connected device,
it broadcasts the data packet to all other connected devices regardless of
which one ends up being the final destination. Additionally, network bandwidth
is split between all of the connected computers. It means, more computer are
connected and less bandwidth for each computer that will become slower
connection speed.




Below is the network
environment that uses the above components:

Each of the
devices have Network interface card (NIC)

3.  Networking cables


In a network environment, networking cables are
required to connect network devices, computers, printers, scanners, etc.
Different type of cables has its own size, speed and costs.


The following are the different type of networking


Category 3


Category 3 Ethernet cable, also known as Cat 3 or
station wire. It is an unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable that is capable of
carrying 10 megabits per second (Mbps) of data or voice transmissions. Its
maximum possible bandwidth is 16 MHz.


Category 5


Cat 5 cables can provide 10/100Mbps speed to the
Ethernet, which means that the cables can support either 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps
speeds. A 100 Mbps speed is also known as Fast Ethernet. Cables category 5 also
can be used for telephone signals and video.


Category 5e


The cables Category 5e which is can optimized to
reduce crosstalk, or the unwanted transmission of signals between data
channels. This category works for 10/100 Mbps and 1000 Mbps (Gigabit) Ethernet.
Cables Category 5e also can use four for enabling Gigabit Ethernet speeds. Cat
5e can support a maximum bandwidth is 100 MHz.


Category 6


The cables Category 6 are certified to handle 1000Mbps
(Gigabit) Ethernet and also can support a maximum bandwidth up to 250 MHz. Cat
6 cables have several improvements, including better insulation and thinner
wires, that provide a higher signal-to-noise ratio, and are better suited for
environments in which there may be higher electromagnetic interference. Cables
Cat 6 are available in shielded twisted pair (STP) forms or UTP forms.


Category 6a


The cables Category 6a are allowing 10000 Mbps data
transmission rates and also can support a maximum bandwidth 500MHz. Category 6a
cables are available in STP form.








Category 7


The cables Category 7 is a fully shielded cable that
can support speeds up to 10 Gbps (10000 Mbps) and the bandwidths of up to 600
Mhz. Cat 7 cables consist of a screened, shielded twisted pair (SSTP) of wires,
and the layers of insulation and shielding contained within them are even more
extensive than that of Cat 6 cables. Because of this shielding, they are
thicker, more bulky, and more difficult to bend.



The following are the table different types of
Ethernet cables, and including a maximum data speed, bandwidth (data), and



Cables type

Maximum Data Transmission Speed

Maximum bandwidth (data)


Category 3




US $1-9  / Meter

Category 5


/ 100 Mbps


$16-50  / Box

Category 5e




US $16-50  / Box

Category 6

or STP



US $15-60  / Box

Category 6e




$10-60  / Box

Category 7




$8-130  / Box






4.  Conclusion


Different organizations have different network
requirement. Large company will require higher capacity and faster speed
network to support their operation compare to smaller company. School will have
different network requirement from home. The set up of the networking
environment must be according to the network requirement and within the budget.
By performing detail analysis to the network requirement and comparing
different type of network cables and devices, we will be able to decide the
most suitable network components and networking cables for the networking
environment and help the organization to achieve their business goal.






Bridging and Switching Basics. (1999, December 8) Retrieved
from. https://www.cisco.com/cpress/cc/td/cpress/fund/ith2nd/it2404.htm

Networking Basic What We Need To Know. (N.D.). Retrieved
from.  https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/small-business/resource-center/connect-employees-offices/networking-basics.html

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). (N.D.). Retrieved from. https://www.cisco.com/c/en_uk/solutions/routing-switching/dsl.html

Difference between a network hub, switch, and router?.
(N.D.). Retrieved from. https://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch001559.htm

The Different Types of Ethernet Cables. (N.D.). Retrieved
from. http://ciscorouterswitch.over-blog.com/article-the-different-types-of-ethernet-cables-125299851.html






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