1. develop learning receptively that will prepare children for

Why does a teacher
or a practitioner in child and adolescent psychology need to know about

Research mainly, is gathering information that
will lead to a conclusion or contribute an existing knowledge. Thus increasing
our understanding on a specific topic, it’s the adult for of science fair
projects/experiments back in elementary days. A practitioner of child and
adolescent psychology who is equipped with research is abreast on the current
trends of his/her specialization. Therefore, he or she is able to effectively
prepare students for the assessment and treatment of psychological difficulties
experienced by children and adults.

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What is meant by
risk and protective factors in child development? When does risk factor produce
negative outcomes to children?

Risk factors in child development are things
that may cause or increase the chance of developing difficulties in child mental
health. Example of these factors can be of peer conflicts and natural
disasters. However, just because children are exposed to risk factors does not
mean they will fully develop mental health difficulties, as long as children
are surrounded by caring and supportive adults, the impact of risk factors can
be reduced. On the other hand, protective factor are things that decrease the
chance of a child developing mental health difficulties. They have positive
outcomes to children because these protect them from the negative effects of
risk factors and enable the children to develop positive social and emotional
perspectives. Therefore, presence of more number of risk factors and least of
the positive factors will give way for the risk factors to produce negative

How can preschool
teachers aid in the brain development of their children in the classroom?

Children come into the world excited to learn
new things. As I observed, the first five years of life are a time of huge
growth of social, conceptual, emotional, linguistic and motor competence but
the pace of learning, however, will depend on whether and to what extent the
child’s inclinations. Moreover, preschool teachers, have a great opportunity
and obligation to facilitate. This propensity to learn and to develop learning
receptively that will prepare children for active engagement learning.




Is there a
difference in growth and motor development based on gender, socioeconomic
status and ethnicity? Explain your answer.

Yes, indeed there are differences. In terms of
ethnicity, it is more of your cultural background. For example, think about of
a child raised in a tribe in Africa compared a child here in the Philippines.
They will both have different upbringings and think very different from each
other. In terms of social status, those that have enough money for in high
class of society tend to provide things necessary for growth and development
such as food, equipment and tools children used for writing, drawing, singing,
and etc. Others even send their child in a training institution.

Provide your own
example of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment.

Positive Reinforcement

Giving a student a
compliment or candy for a job well done.

Getting paid for a
completed task.

Listening to your
favorite songs after doing all your homework.

Dolphin gets a fish
for doing a trick.

Negative Reinforcement

Watching TV when you
worry about a test (procrastination or giving up on it) (reinforces TV watching
behavior by removing worry)

Taking a pain
reliever to reduce pain (reinforces pill-taking behavior by removing pain)


Child has a toy
taken away for fighting with his sister.

Students are
grounded for misbehavior.

Dolphin trainer
walks away with fish bucket when the dolphin gets aggressive.

One person in a
relationship stops talking to the other in response to a behavior








What is the strength
and weaknesses of Piaget’s theory?

Piaget’s theory focused on a child’s information
processes. Thus, parents and teachers will have a greater comprehension of a
child’s developmental level. However, this theory somehow downgraded child’s
intellect. Piaget in his experiments was biased especially when it comes to
sample. Also, this theory is not applicable to children who are late

Provide a situation
that shows a child in the Zone of Proximal Development and discuss according to
the idea of Vygotsky.

ZPD, also known as Zone of Proximal
Development, is define as a difference between what a learner can do without
help and what he or she cannot do. For example, a 10 year old female child is
tasked to compete in an interschool singing competition. According to Vygotsky,
interaction with more capable individual will serve as an effective way of
developing skills and strategies for singing. The child’s older sister who also
has background of singing provided the child the appropriate assistance for the
child to achieve her task.  

Why is information
processing speed slow in infancy? How does it improve overtime?

Briefly, the brain develops gradually from
basic to complex biological and physiological processes. Most of these
processes begin before birth, continue to childhood and reach adulthood, that’s
why children process information slowly. Moreover, experiences contribute to
brain development and children have lesser experience than adults.

Discuss the
relatedness of the components of the information processing (based on the
3-layer model).

The three components of the model of
information processing theory include sensory memory, short term memory and
long term memory. Information is being processed first in the sensory who acts
as filter for only those that are necessary. Information from sensory motor is
processed to short term memory wherein they are maintained and organized.
Lastly, extreme selections of information are to be encoded in the last
component. Thus, each component simply works hand in hand.




How can reasoning
and problem solving skills be developed in children’s classroom?

The brain develops gradually from basic to
complex biological and process. Most of this process begin before birth,
continue to and reach completion during adulthood. That’s why children information
slowly. Moreover, experiences contribute to brain development. Children have
lesser experiences than adults.


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