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1.1 Rationale of the Study
In 2011, the political system of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar has
gradually transformed into democratic leadership system after fi ve decades under
military rule and initiated political, social and economic reforms. Tourism
development has been considered one of Myanmar’s priority sectors to achieve the
economic growth. It has been prioritized in the Government’s Framework for
Economic and Social Reforms (FESR) as potentially one of Myanmar most important
sectors, with great potential to contribute to business opportunities and balancing
social and economic development if managed and developed properly. Consequently,
the National League for Democracy government opened up a long list of permitted
areas for tourists to allow without having prior special permission.
The increase of tourism in Myanmar has creat ed opportunities for employment
generation and is a driver of economic growth. In 2016, tourism supported an
estimated 1,662,000 jobs, which consti tutes 5.7% of total employment. In addition,
tourism generated 6.6% of GDP (USD 2 billion) in 2016, up from only 3.6%
(USD 220 million) in 2011 (The Economic Impact of Travel and Tourism , 2017) .
T his boom in tourism has inspired local communities – especially rural, poor
and marginalized people –to take up gainful employment and exploits
income -generating opportunities in tourism value chains by providing goods and
services to visitors. The tourism industry has a huge multiplier and positive spill -over
effect on other economic sectors, which contributes to the economic growth of the
nation (Macola & Unger, 2018) .
When globalization had brought the social changes ac ross the worldwide, no
country can live isolated successfully from the international community. It is also the
s ame in the local community too (Suansri, 2003). But, it will not be easy for local
communities to deal with the outside international community if th ey do not possess
sufficient level of social, cultural and environment resources.


The idea of global warming is getting popular as a serious threat for the world
and it became apparent that the public generated mor e interest in the environmental
conservat ion, consequences of deforestation, exploitation of natural resources and its
impact s on the people and climate. Rising awareness of the people on the
environmental impacts created the significant awareness on protecting the
environment. The potential bene fits that tourism can offer are quite persuasive to use as a
tool to alleviate poverty (Scheyvens, 2002) . At the age of raising awareness on global
warming, tourism has become an alternative method for livelihood for people
dwell ing in peripheral, rural, poor and developing countries of the world
(Holden, 2013) . Moreover, it can offer the rural people to pursue the alternative
sources of income by receiving the visitors and developing the tourism rathe r than
migration to urban areas and labelled as urban slum.
Moreover, UN and other development organizations had raised the awareness
to the alleviation of rural poverty in many countries. The development of urban
community only may bring internal migrant s, urban congestion, terrible traffic jam
and air pollution. In that way, development strategies became targeted on the
inclusiveness of the rural community. In that case, tourism sector has the great
opportunity to create people of different cultural background together, employment
stimulation and GDP growth. At the end of 20
th century, scholars had begun aware of the destructions of
massive tourism and it caused the introduction to the concept of sustainable tourism
and community- based tourism. On the oth er hand, it was also addressed as pro -poor
tourism and many countries had different opinions on comparing the positive and
negative impacts of it.
Effective institutional management, consistent follow -up and evaluation of the
project play as vital keys to come out the successful community- based tourism and to
suffer the positive benefits to the local people as well as the sustainable development
of the country. If the economic growth of one country depends upon the running out
of the natural environment, t hat is contradicted with sustainable development
(Todaro & Smith, 2012) .
Nowadays, world is facing the environmental hardships due to the extreme
cli mate conditions. In the 21
st century, devious natural disasters are alarming the
countries to raise the awareness on the environmental conservation. Global warming,


plastic pollution, earthquakes, elevating the sea level, floods, storms and droughts
have become the tough challenges that people have to face in the future. That is why;
countries are raising awareness of the impacts on the environment and try to reduce
the carbon dioxide. In that case, community -based tourism can br ing not only
contribution to the community development but also the sustainability of the
Tour ism industry of Myanmar became enhanced in previous years. T he
growth rate of total international tourist arrivals was 37 percent increase in 2015 -2016
on comparing with 2014- 2015 (Myanmar Statistical Yearbook , 2016). Though
signi ficant changes has occurred throughout the whole country, majority of Myanmar
people was still far from benefits of the changing situations because 70 percent
population of Myanmar is concentrated at the rural area. So, it must ensure the
in volvement of that rural people.
The United Nations Organization has set the sustainable development goals by
2030 and SDGs were tended to more emphasize on quality of life. It is said that many
of the poor countries are feigning to reform and the rich countries are pret ending to
help the poor by working on hundred thousands of projects at a symbolic s cale to
make the good headlines (Sachs, 2005).
T he literature on community -based tourism (CBT) focuses primarily on
local -level responsibilities and practices of tourism development and management.
There are a lot of disputes about the impact s of the CBT among the scholars and also
it brings up a lot of criticisms. That is why; this thesis is intended to explore the
effec ts of CBT on the local people and its community.
In M yanmar, there are nine CBT initiatives currently in the phase of
implementation. Among them, Kyaikthale Village in Twante Township was targeted
to study because it is most nearest CBT site to Yangon and the area is full with
historical sites which can attract not only foreign visitors but also local visitors with
its rural sense of community.

1.2 Objective of the Study
Th e objective of the s tudy is to examine the economic, environmental and
sociocultural effects of community- based tourism on local people in Kyaikthale
Village , Twante Township.


1.3 Method of the Study
Qualitative research method was applied to conduct the in- depth interviews by
using the unstructured and structured questionnaires. It was also involv ed secondary
data which was collected from websites of Mi nistry of Hotels and Tourism (Mo HT),
township administrative office and village administrative office.

1.4 Scope and Limitation s of the Study
T he statistic s of the Myanmar Tourism are collected and extracted from the
website of ministry and the period of study is from 2011 to 2017. Among the current
implementation of nine CBT sites, only Kyaikthale village is focused to study the
effects of CBT because of time and financial constraints. This thesis is primarily
focused on the economic, socio cultural, and environmental and health related effect s
on local people of Kyaikthale village, Twante Township.

1.5 Organization of the Study
This thesis is composed of five chapters. C hapter one presents the introduction
covers the rationale, objectives, method, scope and limitation of the study. Chapter
two reviews th e literature related with definitions and various types of tourisms, and
impacts. Chapter three covers the overview of t ourism sector in Myanmar. Chapter
four describes the community- based tourism in Kyaikthale Village, Twante Township
and its effects on local people. Chapter five presents conclusion of the study.



2.1 Concept and T ypes of Tourism
Tourism is one of the most dynam ic economic sectors in many countries,
developed but also developing ones, with a wide range of upstream and downstream
effects on other economic activities thanks to large and diversified supply chain.
During these days, tourism shifts towards developing and least developed countries
are growing faster than in the developed world that is accounting for almost 50
percent of total international tourist arrivals because of culture, art, landscape, wildlife
and climate (UNWTO, 2013) .
Tourism industry: Tourism industry is the myriad of businesses and
organizations that supplies or facilitates tourist experiences, usually but not alw ays for
profit (Sharpley, 2009) . Tourism involves the activities of people travelling and
staying in a place away from home environment for leisure, business or other
purposes. An alternative paradigm of tourism is concerning with ecological
conservation and it started to popular in early 1980s due to lack of attention to the
imp acts on the environment (Sharpley & Telfer, 2002) .
There are many different types depending on the scale of tourists, criteria and
characteristics of tourism. Tourists can choose the particular type of tourism
according to their own desires and preferences. To meet the changing trends of
tourists, the industry tries to provide the diversified and unique types of tourism in
aligned with demand of tourists. Among them, mass tourism is primary origin of the
conventional tourism a nd alternative tourism is the general term of different types of
tourism rather than mass tourism.
2.1.1 Mass Tourism
It involves tourism of organized large groups of people to special tourist
locations with includes the traditional way of fixing daily programs by tour organizer.
The main aim of mass tourism is to increase the supply and profits. Tourists in that
type generally want to buy souvenirs and sightseeing. It can induce high and


destructive impact on the local community, low sustainability and e xternal ownership.
The scale of mass tourism is generally large (Sharpley & Telfer, 2002).
2.1.2 Alternative Tourism
That type of tourism is to describe any tourism initiative that quite differs from
conventional tourism. The scale is small and dispersed, but its distinct characteristic is
to promote a closer and non- disruptive relation between tourists and local community.
The ownership is more directed to local community instead of foreign
business. It tries to promote a nd enhance local participation in tourism planning as
well as operating the mechanisms. It emphasizes the idea of sustainability not only for
environment but also for local culture. It shows the respect and interest to the local
community in its culture an d tradition by avoiding or minimizing any possible
conflicts with local residents. But, the matter of defining different types of tourism in
this c oncept is still controversial (Sharpley & Telfer, 2002).
Business Tourism: It is touring for conducting business transactions, attending
meetings, workshops or conferences. So, the aim of that type of tourism is mainly
Pleasure tourism : It is for improving the physical and spiritual well -being of the
individual such as vacation at a meditation center.
Nature -Bas ed Tourism (NBT): It relies mainly on any attractions directly related to
the natural environment. It includes touring at places famous for nature and scenery
beauty to enjoy nature such as farms and wildlife. Eco tourism is part of nature
Social Tourism : It includes touring to relatives, friends and company of others.
Recreational Tourism : It is travelling to escape from routine life and it is done for joy
or pleasure such as camping or beach visiting.
Act ive Tourism : It is conducting with clear and set objectives such as climbing
mountain, touring around the world and learning arts or languages.
Sports Tourism : It aims to attend sports event such as World Cup and the Olympics.
Religious Tourism : It involves travelling to the religious significant places such as
Bodh Gaya, Mecca in Saudi Arabia, Bethlehem .
Health or Medical Tourism : It involves travelling to improve health of individual one
such as health resorts or weight -loss camps or hospital.
Adventure T ourism: It involves tourism for adventurous activities such as rock
climbing, sky- diving, hiking, surfing, rafting or skiing.


Ecotourism : Ecotourism is defined as travelling to fragile and protected areas that
tries to minimize negativ e impact as possible and small scale. It endeavors to provide
funds for conservation, directly benefits the economy and political empowerment of
local communities and enhances respects for different cultures and rights. So,
ecotourism is assumed to be a type o f nature-based t ourism (Weaver, 2006) .
Culture -Based Tourism: According to Weaver (2006) , any type of tourism that relies
mainly on attractions directly related with cultural resources. It aims to understand the
local history of the place, foods, local productions and local culture.
Community -Based Tourism : Community -based tourism is tourism in which the
significant number of local people has substantial control over and involvement in
tourism development and management. It is managed and owned by the community,
for the community, enabling visitors to increase their awareness and learn about the
community and local ways of life (Hausler & Strasdas, 2002).

2.2 Sustainable Tourism
Sustainable tourism is defined as the ut ilization of sustainable development to
the tourism sector, or tourism development that wisely uses and conserves natural
resources to sustain long -term viability. It takes full account of its current and future
economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the
industry, the environment and host communities (Weaver, 2006) .
According to the definition of World Tourism Organization (2006),
“The development of sustainable tourism requires the inf ormed participation of all
relevant stakeholders, as well as strong political leadership to ensure wide
participation and consensus building. Achieving sustainable tourism is a continuous
process and it requires constant monitoring of impacts, introducing the necessary
preventive and/ or corrective measures whenever necessary.”
That is why, sustainable tourism:
1. Makes optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key
element in tourism development, maintaining essential ecological
processes an d helping to conserve natural heritage and biodiversity.
2. Respects the socio -cultural authenticity of host communities, conserve
their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values, and
contribute to inter- cultural understanding and tolerance .


3. Ensures viable, long -term economic operations, providing
socio -economic benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed,
including stable employment and more income opportunities and social
services to host communities and contributing to poverty alleviation.
4. Maintains high level of tourist satisfaction and ensure a meaningful
experience to the tourists, raising their awareness about sustainability
issues and promoting sustainable tourism practices amongst them
(UNEP & UNWTO, 2005) .
A well-adopted community- based tourism can benefit to each of three pillars
of sustainability which are social, environmental and economic context. That is based
on the concept of the triple bottom line for sustainability. It was promoted by many
international organizations including APEC and the United Nations. The three pillars
of sustainability are presented graphically in the following figure 2.1 which indicates
that overall sustainability is best achieved when environmental, e conomic and social
objectives are all being met.
Figure 2.1 Aspects of Sustainability

Source: Effective Community- Based Tourism, a best practice manual, 2010

2.2.1 History of Sustainable Tourism
The terminology of sust ainable tourism derived from idea of sustainable
development came out in publication of Brundtland Report in late 1980s, focusing on
natural resource conservation for sustaining long -term viability (Weaver, 2006) .

Economic Social


Sustainable tourism includes ecotourism, agriculture tourism, education
tourism and community- based tourism. It was regarded as a means of achieving
sustainable development thr ough tourism. It focused on preservation of natural
re sources and conservation of sociocultural aspect of area, rather than emphasizing on
tourism’s contribution to the sustainable development of the area (Sharpley, 2009).
A broader perspective highligh ts not only meaningful travel experiences as
primary objective but also touri sm’s contribution to sustainable development of
destinations such as community initiatives in tourism development and community
participations in planning and monitoring of progre ss. The ultimate aim of sustainable
tourism is sociocultural, economic a nd environmental sustainability (UNWTO, 2013).
The very first aim of sustainable tourism is to promote the sociocultural
authenticity of host communities, conserve their cultural heritages and traditional
values, and enhance the intercultural understanding. The second purpose is to ensure
long- term economic viability of host communities and fairly provide socioeconomic
benefits to all stakeholders such as stabl e employment, income earning opportunities
and poverty alleviation. The last, but not the least, aim is to promote optimal and
wisely use of natural and environmental resources, maintain essential ecological
process and help to conserve natural heritages and biodiversity including natural area,
habitats and wildlife (UNEP & UNWTO, 2005) .
2.2.2 Principles of Sustainable Tourism
The principles of sustainable tourism are as stated as follows:
1. Reflect local community values in a living and dynamic way
2. Provide mutual benefits to the host community and tourist
3. Achieve authenticity in representing local history, heritage, culture, lifestyle and
natural resources
4. Add value to existing attri butes in order to offer a richer tourism experience and
help diversify the local economy
5. Achieve distinction form other competing tourism destinations
6. Collaborate with other businesses and stakeholders in order to build local capacity
7. Support the conservation of natural resources and wildlife
8. Minimize negative environmental impact (Sharpley, 2009) .


2.3 Community -Based Tourism
Community: Community refers to members of a group who share common
characteristics and interests. The perception of community is an achievement, not
necessarily belonging to the same geographical region. The focus is the context they
share, such as a field of knowledge, interests, activities, or experiences bound by the
community of people (Hausler & Strasdas, 2002) .
Local Community: A local community is a group of interacting people living
in a common location, sharing an environment, beliefs, resources, preferences, needs,
risks and a number of other conditions may be present and affecting the identity of the
partic ipants and their degree of cohesiveness. Community is most generally defined as
residents contained by geographical boundaries, local zoning, or politic; the ethnicity
of its residents or the resources or industry established in the area (Mancini, 2009).
The operational definition of community is geographical area that assumes a
commonality of circumstances and identity among its people and contains functional
units for the delivery of goods and services (Chaskin, 2001) .
In the mid -1990s, c ommunity- based tourism became popular to reverse the
top- down development approach to bottom -up approach that can enhance real and
all -inclusive community participation at all lev els of development. In the context of
tourism, there is a wide range of community involvement may be voluntarily or
involuntarily. Community is attracted to tourism not only for the demand side,
increasing awareness and learning about the community and loc al ways of life, but
also for the supply side, the increased contributions of community to locally managed
tourism (Sharpley & Telfer, 2002) .
Stakeholders are people who directly or indirectly involved or affected by the
venture, and it is needed to be identified and involved in the phase of assessment.
CBT in rural areas is mostly related with traditional products that are natural
resources based. Moreover, additional agencies such as NGOs, government
de partments, forestry, fishery and agriculture may need to get involved in assess ment
an planning phases of CBT. F igure 2.2 illustrates potential stakeholders who may get
involved in regional or ru ral CBT and sustainable tourism. That is why; good
relationship and effective cooperation between these types of stakeholders are of
essential as they may have long processes to relate in the future as monitoring and
evaluating roles.


Figure 2.2 Sustainable Tourism S takeholders

Source: Effective Community- Based Tourism, a best practice manual, 2010

2.3.1 Definitions of Community -Based Tourism
There are substantial variances in defining C BT among different destinations
around the world.
Accor ding to APEC, community -based tourism is co mmonly understood to be
managed and owned by the community and for the community. It is a form of local
tourism that favors local service providers and suppliers, focus on interpreting and
communicating the l ocal culture and environment. It has been pursued and supported
by communities, local, governmental agencies and NGOs.
Caribbean Tourism Organization defined CBT as a collaborative approach to
tourism in which community members exercise control through act ive participation in
apprai sal, development, management or ownership, whole or in part, of enterprises
that deliver net socioeconomic benefits to community members, conserve natural and
cultura l resources and add value to experiences of local and foreign v isitors.
Committee for Economic and Commercial Cooperation of Islamic
Cooperation recognized that CBT is tourism that is planned, developed, owned,
managed by the community for the community and guided by collective decision
making, responsibility, assess , ownership and benefits.


With regard to World Wid e Fund for Nature International (2001),
community- based ecotourism is a form of ecotourism where local community has
substantial control over , involvement in; its development, management and a major
proport ion of the benefits remain within the community.
According to Thailand Community Based Tourism Institute (2012), CBT is
tourism that takes environmental, social and cultural sustainability into account. It is
managed and owned by the community, for the com munity, with the purpose of
enabling visitors to increase the awareness and learn about the community and local
ways of life.
Community -Based Tourism is defined as economically, environmentally,
socially and culturally responsible visitation to local, ind igenous communities to
enjoy and appreciate their cultural and natural heritage whose tourism resources,
products and services are developed and managed with their active participation and
whose benefits fr om tourism, tangible or intangible, are collectiv ely enjoyed by the
communities (Boonratana, 2010) .
Community -based tourism is regarded as a tool for community development
and cultural and natural conservation. Consequently, the research applies a holistic
view of community deve lopment, sustainable development, sustainable tourism, and
community- based tourism, encompassing social, economic, and environmental
development in the community and tourism context to maximize the suc cess of
community- based tourism (Nitikasetsoontorn, 2014) .
Community -based tourism is quite a lot different from massive tourism. It
contributes the wa y to benefit the process of the community development while some
other types of tourism are damaging unintentionally society, culture and nature
scenes. It does not aim for only maxim izing the profits of investors (Suansri, 2003) .
2.3.2 Characteris tics of Community -Based Tourism
The concept is composed of following characteristics –
1. Host communities retain traditional life and culture that is of interest to tourists;
2. Tourism in host communities are planned, developed, and managed with their
3. Host communities are actively involved in the planning, developing, and
managing the tourism products and activities;
4. The process of planning, developing, and managing the tourism help unify,
empower, and instill pride in the host communities;


5. Host communities are empowered to plan, develop, and manage the tourism
complementary to their lifestyles;
6. All residents of host communities have equal opportunities to earn income as land
managers, entrepreneurs, service and produce providers, and employees;
7. Income generated is an additional or alternative source, or used for poverty
8. Part of the tourist income is reserved for projects that collectively benefits host
9. Tourism in host communities contribute to the preservation of cultural heritage
and conse rvation of natural heritage;
10. Host communities, visitors, and other stakeholders are aware of the negative
impacts of tourism, and have measures in place to mitigate such impacts;
11. Visitors are briefed about social and cultural norms of host communities before or
upon arrival, therefore encouraging responsible behavior;
12. Exchanges between visitors and host communities foster tolerance, understanding,
and cross -cultural learning; and
13. Host communities, visitors, and other stakeholders are obliged to avoid
commoditizing sacred / religious rituals and ceremonies (Boonratana, 2010) .
2.3.3 Conditions and Barriers to Community -Based Tourism
There are enabling factors that can contribute to the success of CBT and
barriers that can act as barriers to the development of CBT. Table 2.1 outlines the
potential enabling conditions as well as potential barriers to the development of CBT.
Characteristics of the community such as leve l of participation, structure,
adequate infrastructure and partnerships are also contributed to the success or failure
of community- based tourism.


Table 2.1 Enabling conditions of community influencing the success of CBT
Enabling factors for good practice CBT Barriers to development of CBT
Well-organized and cohesive community Fragmented and unorganized
community organizations
All community members are widely
involved in decision making process and
financial management around CBT
Decision making power is male
dominant and benefits are not equally
Clear and well-defined land ownership Recurrent disputes about land ownership
Bottom-up management structure Top-down structure
High participation level Weak participation level
Decision for CBT is done by community
based on informed choice, impact, options,
risk and outcomes
No real local decision making process
Driver is not only income generation but
also cultural and natural heritage
conservation an intercultural learning
Drivers is solely financial
Good marketing mechanisms Misplaced marketing
Strong plan of expansion to limit visitor
numbers in aligned with carrying capacity
of community and environment to avoid
adverse effects on both
Lack of future planning
Strong partnership with local NGOs or
relevant government bodies and other
Established through external funding
Approaches are contextually and locally
appropriate and not just imported from other
CBT is seen as one size fits all
Part of community development strategy Quick fix way up and out of a poverty
Linked to visitor education on the value of
culture and resources present – do and don’t
No attempt to inform visitors of
specific nature of local and cultural
Good existing infrastructure to assess the
Inadequate infrastructure and there is no
potential for investment
Source: Effective Community Based Tourism by APEC Tourism Working Group
(Asker, Boronyak, Carrared, ; Paddon, 2010)


2.3.4 Principles of Community -Based Tourism
It is believed that community -based tourism has the significant potential to
offer unique opportunities for communities not only by providing financial benefits
but also promoting their participation and involvement in tourism planning and
development in their areas in innovative ways (Hausler ; Strasdas, 2002) . In CBT,
local members are the owners and decision makers in tourism management for the
benefits of their communities. They support cultural and natural heritage preservation
and are concerned with the impact of tourism on their communities and the
environment. The residents earn income as owners, entrepreneurs, and product and
service providers.
The principles of community- based tourism are as followed:
1. Involve communities in tourism planning, on- going decision-making,
development, and operations
2. Recognize, support, and promote community ownership of tourism
3. Foster cross -cultural learning and include education as part of the tourism service
4. Respect cultural differences and human dignity
5. Aim to benefit local communities, particularly indigenous peoples in rural areas,
improve the quality of life, and contribute to the well- being of their cultural and
environmental assets
6. Share the benefits equitably among community members
7. Use a portion of the profits or resources for community development to maintain
and protect a community cultural or natural heri tage asset
8. Increase local and visitor awareness of cultural and natural heritage conservation
Minimize negative impact on socio -cultural environment and natural resources and
ensure environmental sustainability (Hausler ; Strasda s, 2002).

2.4 Types of Residents
According to Krippendorf (1987), t ourism communities are composed of six
resident segments. The six resident types are outlined in Table 2.2. The first segment
consists of residents in direct and continuous contact with tourists. Their livelihood is
dependent upon tourism and they have a positive attitude towards welcoming tourists.
E.g . tour guides, tour coordinators.
The second group of residents includes local business owners who have
indirect contact with tourists. Tourism is a commercial concern and is viewed as


positive matter that generates money for that group. For example, Owners of
Business, guest house and lodge owners.
The third group of residents is individuals who have direct and regular contact
with tourists but derive only part of their income from tourism. For example, taxi
drive rs and restaurant workers. Those people can see rationally not only advantages
but also the disadvantages of tourism as well as its consequences in comparison to the
first two resident types.
The fourth group of local community is a group of people who do not have
contact with tourists, but see them in the background. This group will present a wide
variety of attitudes ranging from tourism support, to indifference and rej ection.
The fifth group is composed of political fi gures such as village chairman and
vil lage elders who have a goal of raising the quality of life of the local people .
Though their income is not derived from tourism, they take part in the decision
making process of the tourism and manage village revenues from tourism.
The sixth group consists of external figures such as development workers and
monks and missionaries. Though they are employed in another capacity in which their
income is not derived from touris m, they involved in decision making proces s.


Table 2.2 Types of Residents
Type of Resident Level of Economic benefits
Resident Occupations
Type 1 Derive a high level of financial
benefits from tourism as main
source of cash inco me
Tour guides, tour
Type 2 Income is partially derived from
Handicraft sellers, cooks
for tourists
Type 3 Income is partially derived from
Restaurants and store
Type 4 Income is not derived from
tourism, not currently engaged in
Occupations unrelated to
tourism, homemakers,
unemployed people
Type 5 (Political
Income is not derived from
tourism, but involved in decision
making process
District council, village
chairman, village elders
Type 6 (External
Employed in another capacity
which income is not derived from
tourism, but involved in decision
making process
Development workers and
Source: Krippendorf (1987)

2.5 Contributions of Tourism
The idea of tourism as a global econo mic and social phenomenon of modern
era remains the same; it has become an important economic development mechanism
for ma ny developing countries . Though it started with elites of the developed
countries, it has now expanded to developing countries inclusi on of marginalized and
poor communities. Tourism became a favorable option for many developing countries
which are labor intensive industries and rich in beautiful sceneries with limited
growth opportunities. That may be due to its contributi on to achieve sustainable
development of tourism’s potential (Scheyvens, 2002) .
Effects of tourism on community can be negative or positive. Irresponsible
tourism development and practice can degrade the local habitats and natural


resources. I n contrast, sustainable tourism supports cultural and natural heritage
conservation and creates awareness of tourism impact on the community and
environment (World Wide Fund for Nature International, 2001). The potential positive contributions of tourism a re as follows:
1. Economic – Gross Domestic Product (GDP), foreign exchange,
employment opportunities, income, poverty reduction,
infrastructure development
2. Social /cultural – Strengthening local cultu re, self-reliance, revitalizing
the art of crafts
3. Environmental – Sustainable develo pment, environmental management
4. Political – Empowerment, s elf-reliance, freedom, image of
stability and security
Positive contribution that tourism provided will help to achieve the sustainable
tourism which further can be an aid to the way of sustainable development. That is
summarized in the table 2.3. Raising production and income of local people from
diversifying local economy and increasing job opportunities for local people derived
from sustainable tourism can contribute to achieve the sustainable development.
Moreover, increasing the capacity of local people and community organization
resulting from sustainable tourism can help to attain the sustainable development. The
sense of care and love for the environment and the need to conserve the tradition and
culture are also the key contributions of sustainable development.


Tab le 2.3 Positive contribution of tourism
Dimension Sustainable
Sustainable Tourism
Economic 1. Income from local
2. Diversified local
3. Self -reliance
1. Raise fund for community
2. Create job opportunities
3. Raise income of local people
Social 1. People-centered
2. Social justice
3. Satisfying quality of
4. Active community
1. Raise quality of life
2. Promote community pride
3. Divide roles fairly between
genders and ages differences
4. Build community
5. management organizations
Environmental 1. Natural resources
2. Ethnic Rights
3. Environmental
4. Natural resources
1. Study the carrying capacity of the
2. Manage waste disposal
3. Raise awareness of the need for
traditional and cultural
Source: Community- based tourism handbook (Suansri, 2003) .
It is also needed to be considered n egative impacts of tourism throughout the
planning and implementation process within the context of economic, environmental
and cultural analysis. Emphasizing these impacts can help to achieve long -term
sustainability of future tourism development. Determi ning the intangible costs and
benefits of tourism may better be accomplished by investigating the sociocultural
impacts of tourism on local populations.
Hosts and tourist contact can act as catalyst for cultural change. But, it can
also happen from natura l process even in the absence of tourists. Such kinds of
changes can result ecological changes in the habitat and be followed by evolutionary
cultural changes to the needs of the society. Visible environmental impacts such as


increased noise, changes in health problems, hygiene issues and pollution can also be
discovered as negative consequences of the tourism.
2.5.1 Economic Impacts
At the age of global warming, tourism has been considered as an alternative
tool in order to attain gross domestic product (GDP) growth. It was also regarded as
potential economic and social development strategy for developing countries where
capital resources are rare to find out.
The ability to generate a great deal of foreign revenue is another reaso n that
can tempt developing countries to adopt the community- based tourism as an option to
attain the economic growth. So, that is also the way to narrow the gap between the
developed and developing countries, and the regions (Wall & Mathieson, 2006) .
The most significant benefit of the tourism can be observed in promoting
employment opportunities for local and national level. It can contribute to p romoting
the living standard of local community. Buying souvenirs and handicrafts can also
generate the income of local people directly or indirectly. It can also induce
employment derived from spending of local participants employed in tourism.
In mass to urism, hotels and resorts are trying to satisfy the needs of tourists by
fulfilling the facilities such as foods, drinks and utensils almost quite similar as
provided in their developed countries. Purchasing luxury and branded things from
abroad can cost l arge amount of foreign currency leakages to the country. But, local
handicrafts are applied commonly in CBT to encourage the local culture
Improvements in tourism can stimulate and promote the improvements in
different sectors such as infrastructural development such as road, electricity,
education provision and health care services to the community.
Tourism is a volatile and seasonal industry depending on factors such as
fashions, political situations and natural disasters. Unfortunate ly, developing countries
are favorable to natural disasters and political unrest according to its nature and
difficult to recover from its consequences. When a developing country is over
dependent to tourism, its characteristic of inconsistency can affect the host country.
Increasing price of land and property as well as food and utilities that are
highly demanded by tourists can exert the negative impact on local people.


2.5.2 Environmental impacts
Conservation: CBT can help in conserving t he nature of local environment,
protecting the natural resources, and old historical buildings.
Cleaner environment / Improvement in Landscape : Residents at the
surroundings of the CBT sites are more willing to have cleaner environment and more
disciplined because they do not want to be condemned by visi tors due to messy
environment. Generation of waste products : Local residents can be disturbed by CBT sites if
dumping site of waste products is untidy and its smell is offensive.
Extravagant tourist activitie s: If activities and lifestyles of the tourist are
uneconomical, uncontrolled and unregulated such as overuse of cars and using too
much luxury goods, that may lead to the destruction of infrastructures such as roads
and too m uch consumption of electricity.
Population dynamics : Increasing too much population in the peak seasons due
to its nature as seasonal activity such as mass or congested populations during certain
periods may cause pressure or burden on the local residents.
2.5.3 Sociocultural impacts
Revitalization of local culture : In some developing countries, local culture,
promoted t o lure the certain kinds of tourists. But, it can also be negative effect if
culture only is treated as commodity. Revitalization of local handicrafts : Some local communities have already lost
their local handicrafts because they are substituted with other cheap and durable
materials. But, this art can be revitalized if that kind of work can attract the visitors.
That can be benefited to local community not only in form of profits but also in
preservatio n of local art and handicrafts.
Communication between cultures : Communication with people from different
cultural backgrounds can help local people to get awareness of f oreign cultures.
Cross -cultural communication between tourists and host communities can be positive
or negative depending upon other factors such as type and attitude of tourists, length
of stay and language barriers.
Heightened self -identity : Well- recognition of local culture and customs from
visitors can heighten the self -image an d esteem of local community.
Enhancing general knowledge : Local people can have health knowledge such
as handwashing and toil eting practices by learning good behaviors from foreigners.


Social change: Risk of imitating foreign cultures that is not suitab le with local
customs and traditions can threaten the local community if there is no proper care and
code of conduct upon the local community and visitors.
Moral behavior : Tourism may encourage prostitution, organized crime and
gambling in response to economic needs of the host population. Those kinds of
changing moral behavior can have negative impacts to the community.




3.1 Tourism in Myanmar
The Republic of the Union of Myanmar is a country in Southeast Asia,
bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal south. It is bounded in north and
northeast by China, in east by Laos and Thailand, in west by Bangladesh and the
Indian states of Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram. It is also known as the Golden
Land and was formerly popular with the name of Burma.
The country covers an ar ea of 676, 578 km squares (261, 218 square miles).
Mount Hkakabo Razi is the highest highest mountain in Myanmar and Sout heast Asia
with the altitude of 5, 881 meters (19, 295 feet), located in Kachin State near the
country’s northern border with China. The main rivers of the country are the
Irrawaddy and the Chindwin. Yangon is the economic center and former capital of
Myanmar. Naypyidaw is the new capital city of Myanmar since 2005.
The population of the country is 51.4 million people according to census of
2014. The country possesses multiplicity of 135 ethnic groups. Bamar is the largest
ethnic group which is 68% and other main groups are Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Arakanese
3.5%, Mon 2%, Kayin 1.25% and Kayah 0.75%. Other minorities in Myanmar are
Chinese 2.5% and Indian 1.5%. Major population of 89.2% is devoted in Buddhism,
5% is in Christian, 3.8% is in Islam and 0.5% is in Hinduism and 1.4% is in others.
The direct contribution of Travel and Tourism to GDP in 2017 was MMK 2,
647.2 billion (2.7% of GDP). This is forecast to rise by 5.2% to MMK 2,784.2 billion
in 2018. This primarily reflects the economic activity generated by industries such as
hotels, travel agents, airlines and other passenger transportation services (excluding
commuter services). But it also includes, for example, the activities of the restaurant
and leisure industries directly supported by tourists.
After long period of limited contact with outside world, the arrival of
international tourists has soared form 762,547 in 2009 to 4,681,020 in 2015. Then, the
global tourism trend has shifted to more natural conservation and responsible tourism
and away from conventional mass tourism industry.


3.2 Tourism Policy Framework in Myanmar
Tourism sector in Myanmar is one of the prioritized areas for the
implementatio n of the national export strategy. The Responsible tourism policy 2012,
the policy on community involvement in Tourism 2013 and the Tourism Master Plan
2013- 2020 are policies set out by the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism in line with the
criteria of the Gl obal Sustainable Tourism Council to support the tourism sector of
Myanmar to reach the fullest potential.
The 2012 Responsible Tourism Policy encourages local communities to
engage in tourism development and to be aware of the impact of tourism on their
e nvironment, culture and local economy. The role of women is also taken into
account in the policy outline while CSOs and NGOs are encouraged to take a role in
assisting in the development and implementation of tourism -related projects.
The policy on Community Involvement Tourism (CIT) aims to achieve a
medium level of community participation in the development of the tourism sector. It
is stated that planning and management of tourism in decision making process must
involve consultation session with local c ommunity about the effects on their
livelihoods. Another fact is that the final decisions shall be made in coordination with
the private sector with the approval of public administration.
The core principles of CIT policy include local community participat ion in
tourism development, willingness of the local community, respecting local culture,
traditions and beliefs, sound business planning of CBT enterprises, rights over
tourism resources and respect for land and land ownership. Moreover, it encourages
com munity members to start their own small and medium businesses. They also
welcome investors or joint venture partners with the public and private sector.
The Tourism Master Plan ( 2013-2020) serves as a roadmap for future
development of tourism industry in Myanmar to be intervene with principles of the
responsible tourism policy. Optimizing the contribution of tourism to national GDP,
employm ent and income generation of local residents is the goal of the Master Plan
through increasing number of international visitors to seven million annually by 2020.
It has been considered to enhance the following seven cross -cutting themes in
de veloping the plan –
1. Gender equity
2. Environmental sustainability
3. Partnerships


4. Innovative financing
5. Regional cooperation
6. Access to disabled people
7. Consultation and participation

3.3 Myanmar Visitor Profile
The progress of Myanmar tourism sector can be observed through the record
of tourist arrivals to Myanmar according to Myanmar Tourism Statistics.
3.3.1 International Tourist Arrivals in Myanmar
The number of tourist arrivals in Myanmar has been increasing sharply since
economic sanctions had begun to be relieved in 2012. Myanmar received significant
attention in 2013 in the international press and media as the new travel destination
because it opened up again for tourism. That caused the number of arrivals in 2013
almost doubled in comparing with the previous year 2012 (see t able 3.1).
Growth continued in years of 2014 and 2015, but period of 2 015-2016 became
a difficult time for the tourism industry in Myanmar because of several domestic
issues, ranging from internal conflict and politi cal uncertainty due to the presidential
elections and severe flooding in certain parts of the country.
Nevert heless, this is not the sole explanation for the drop in arrivals between
2015 and 2016. The introduction of new ways of gathering tourism statistics by the
government also played a major role. Statistics institutions in Myanmar corrected
their definitions of tourist arrivals, resulting in a less inflated and more realistic
picture of the situation. Tourist arrivals from the border gateways are excluded from
the number of arrival s (Macola ; Unger, 2018) .
T he progress of international tourist arrivals and entry points in Myanmar
from 2011 to 2017 is described in table 3.1. These periods are years after the initiation
of political, social and economic reforms. Tourism sector of Myanmar has also been
on the tr ack of initiating its reforms.
Yangon and Mandalay are the main entry points for international tourist
arrivals because they are economic capitals of Myanmar. Apart from using three
international airports, tourists from neighboring countries use border gat eways if it is
convenient to utilize.


Table 3.1 International Tourist Arrivals and Entry Points in Myanmar (2011- 2017)
Year Yangon Mandalay Myeik/
Naypyitaw Border
2011 364,743 20,912 0 5,521 425,193 816,369
2012 559,610 32,521 0 1250 465,614 1,058,995
2013 817,699 69,596 1024 11,842 1,144,146 2,044,307
2014 1,022,081 90,011 271 19,261 1,949,788 3,081,412
2015 1,180,682 107,066 0 13,835 3,379,437 4,681,020
2016 1,080,144 128,387 47,841 16,224 1,634,611 2,907,207
2017 1,146,069 157,860 41,942 17,077 2,080,185 3,443,133
Source: Ministry of Hotels and Tourism
Figure 3.1 Internatio nal Tourist Arrivals in Myanmar (2011- 2017)

Source: Ministry of Hotels an d Tourism in Myanmar

1,000,000 1,500,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 3,000,000
4,500,000 5,000,000
Number of Arrived Tourists


3.3.2 Average Expenditure and Average Length of Stay in Myanmar
The average length of stay increased significantly between 2012 and 2016
from 7 to 11 days (see table 3.2) . The longer stay and the lower average daily
expenditure between 2015 and 2016 can be explained by the decreasing prices in
2016, when the offer of tourism services, especially in terms of accommodation,
started to boom. Additionally, the increased length of stay could indicate that tourists
are slowly starting to add secondary destinations to their trips , beyond the classic
highlights (Macola ; Unger, 2018) .
T ab le 3.2 Average Expenditure and Average Length of Stay in Myanmar (2011 -2017)
Year Tourist
(Million in
(USD per day per
Length of Stay
2011 816,369 319 120 8
2012 1,058,995 534 135 7
2013 2,044,307 926 145 7
2014 3,081,412 1,789 170 9
2015 4,681,020 2,122 171 9
2016 2,907,207 2,197 154 11
2017 3,443,133 1969 153 9
Source: Ministry of Hotels and Tourism

3.4 Tourist Destinations in Myanmar
Covering an area of 676,577 kilomet er square, Myanmar is blessed with a
wide diversity of ecosystems from the dense forests and alpine habitats of the Eastern
Himalayas, to the mangrove forests and tropical coral reefs of the Myeik Archipelago.
3.4.1 Myeik Archipelago
The Myeik archipelago is situated in southern Taninthayi Division of
Myanmar. The region is bordered by Andaman Sea, Thailand and Mon State. It can
be accessed by air and by land from Yangon. There are many tin mines, oil palm
plantation, rubber plantation and evergreen forest . The most famous things in Myeik
are above 800 beautiful islands scattered across the blue sea along the coast.


Kawthaung is one of the entry ports into Myanmar from Thailand via the
Pakchan River. Tourists can observe many valuable pearl breeding and f ishing beds.
There can be seen Salone tribe, marine nomads, are expert in swimming, diving and
submerging in the sea. They are also popular with name called Sea Gypsy or Men of
the Sea.
The capital of Taninthayi Region is Dawei which is famous for intere sting
colonial architecture with many old wooden thatch- roofed bungalows, brick, stucco
mansions, islands and f amous historical pagodas. Nine pagodas in Dawei are also
famous as wishful pagodas among visitors and Maung- ma-gan beach is also popular
for its beautiful nature and scenery.
3.4.2 Chin Hills
Chin Hills is also known as Chin Hills due to its characteristics of
mountainous geography, slope and altitude. Visitors who like adventurous tourism are
interesting to visit Mt. Victoria situated at the southern part of Chin state. The area is
also famous for ecotourism and it can attract birdwatchers and botanists for its
richness of biodiversity. It can be accessible by car on poor roads cut along the
mountain sides and valleys. Kanpetlet and Mindat can be reached from the central
plain region, Pakokku, also Bagan. Local people in Chin state are well known for loyalty and weaving skills.
Experiencing authentic hill tribe culture along the Chin Hills can attract the visitors
who have great interest in tribal people. Not only the suitable place for
mountaineering but also watching the beauty of biodiversity can lure local and
international visitors. Rih Lake, beautiful heart -shaped lake, is also known as for its
uniqueness of holy water. Though it is difficult to access to the place, November to
February is suitable to visit.
3.4.3 Yangon
The former capital and largest economic city of Myanmar , is also first entry
point for most international visitors via Yangon International Airport. It is a city of
melting pot – diversity of cultures and communities in terms of ethnics and religions.
Formerly known as Rangoon, Yangon is famous for Shwedagon Pagoda
which is the sacred building among Buddhists. Botahtaung Jetty is also one of the
attractive places for local people and international visitors. Bogyoke Market can lure
with its variety of souvenir shops and jewelries. Y angon University campus is famous
for its historical convocations, Judson Church, Adipati Road and Recreation Centre.


Downtown Y angon is widely recognized as the highest density of colonial
period buildings in Southeast Asia. The Yangon City Heritage List consists of nearly
200 edifices including religious structures, ancient pagodas and British colonial
buildings. Among them, it is not supposed to miss the red brick High Court by
architect John Ransome, the legendary Strand Hotel by Armenian Sarkies brothers,
The Secretariat where national leader General Aung San and his comrades were
assassin ated in 1947 and Yangon City Hall compl eted in 1936 by architect U Tin.
3.4.4 Mandalay
Mandalay is the top commercial hub of Upper Myanmar and bordered by
Magway Region, Sagaing Region and Shan State. The core of the city includes the
moated citadel of Fort Dufferin, the ruins of the royal pala ce, numerous temples and
monasteries and the old British Government House. Mandalay Hill, northeast of the
cantonment near the river, is the location of relatively recent monasteries, pagodas
and monuments.
The trademark of Mandalay is Mandalay Palace whi ch was the last royal city
of King Sipaw before Myanmar was colonized by Britain in 1885. The palace is also
recognized as center of Burmese culture for its moat, palace wall with city gates and
wooden pavilions.
Industries include tea -leaves packing, silk weaving, brewing and distilling,
jade cutting, brass and copper casting, and gold- leaf work. Matches, wood carvings,
gold wares and silver wares are also produced.
3.4.5 Bagan
Bagan is one of the most significant archaeological sites of South East Asia
a nd a key tourist destination in Mandalay Region with over 2, 000 ancient pagodas
and temples. Once it was the capital of a powerful ancient kingdom between the 11
and 13
th century, the ‘Bagan Archaeological Zone’ occupies an impressive 26
square -mile are a. The Irrawaddy River drifts past its northern and western sides.
History of more than 1,500 years makes the local and international visitors to
have great interest in Bagan. The beautiful local art such as lacquer ware, basket and
clothe weaving is the most fascinating place for travelers. The scale of Bagan can be
overwhelming with its thousands of monuments as far as the eyes can see. Some are
very well maintained and have been restored while others are neglected and
overgrown with heavy vegetation.


3.4.6 Inlay Lake
Inlay Lake is located in the heart of Shan Plateau and 900 meters above sea
level. The lake is 22km long and 10km across and inhabited by many different ethnic
nationals of the area. Leg rowed traditional boats rowed by lake dwellers are t he main
ceremonial attractions of the Inlay Lake. Inlay Lake Wildlife Sanctuary, Kakku
Pagodas, Kalaw hiking and hot spring are also main attractions of Shan State.
3.4.7 Mrauk U
Mrauk U is an archaeologically important town in northern Rakhine State,
Myan mar. This ancient kingdom is one of Myanmar’ s most splendid hidden gems to
travel to. The abandoned city and hundreds of temples and pagodas in Mrauk U are
awe -inspiring sights of Rakhine State. Ngapali Beach is the most famous beach in
Myanmar for its Pearl Island, snorkel ing and scuba diving services.

3.5 Community -Based Tourism Initiatives in Myanmar
National and international tourists are becoming more and more interested in
experiencing tourism with local people and living cultures. Moreover,
communit y-based tourism has been widely adopted as an alternative means for
economic development as well as for the protection and conservat ion of the natural
environment (EAI, 2017) .
According to the 2012 Responsible Tourism Policy, the government of
Myanmar has encouraged the development of community- based tourism across the
country to attract the incoming international visitors and to promote the involvement
of comm unities in the tourism industry.
There are nine CBT initiatives operati ng in Myanmar in 2018. These include
1. Inndawgyi Lake in Kachin State
2. Cultural Community at Demawso in Kayah State
3. Thandaunggyi CBT site in Kayin State
4. CBT at Mt.Victoria in Sor Long village, Chin State
5. Mingala Bio garden at Kyaikthale vill age, Twante Township, Yangon
6. The Ayeyarwaddy dolphin sanctuary in Mandalay Region
7. Tamarind Lake Village in Magway Region
8. Pa-O self -administrative zone in Shan State
9. Myaing CBT in Magway Region


3.5.1 Inndawgyi Lake in Kachin State
Inndawgyi Lake is the largest lake in Myanmar and it is a secluded destination
for nature lovers. It is located in Mohnyin Township of Kachin State at the northern
part of Myanmar. The place is highly attracted to tourists who love to experience the
simple rural life styles and beautiful environment. Bird watching is also a kind of
activities which can lure the international birdwatchers.
Local people offer services such as organizing trekking and recreational
fishing trips, renting kayaks and bicycles. They dedicated to balance the needs for
nature/environmental conservation and economic development by contributing profits
towards the comm unity projects.
3.5.2 Cultural Community at Demawso in Kayah State
Demawso is known for its rich diversity of ethnic cultures and conserving the
traditions to this day. It is located south -east part of Myanmar and it was previously a
brown colored area notorious for long- lasting battle conditions. Since 2011, conflicts
became stabilized and the destination started to be popular among the local and
international visitors.
Visitors can experience the full and half day tours, arts a nd music
performances, Kayah Barbecue and traditional liquor, jungle trekking and
mountaineering. Traditional homes of ethnic people and beautiful landscapes can lure
the huge attention of tourists.
3.5.3 Thandaunggyi CBT site in Kayin State
Thandaunggyi is known for its distinct landscapes and characters. It is situated
in the northern part of Kayin State which is only five hours drive from Yangon. The
Old British Fort with a unique spiral staircase built 100 years ago on a small hilltop is
t he major attraction to visitors. One can hike the mountain named Nawbubaw and
experience the active tourism. Local people believe that wish will be answered after
one hikes the mountain and makes a wish.
Pathi Creek is also another attraction to visitors because people accept that the
water from there can treat many diseases especially art hritis. Hans Seidel Foundation
focuses on responsible ecotourism development that supports the peaceful coexistence
of religions, environmental conservation, inclusive c ommunity development and
infrastructure development.


3.5.4 CBT at Mt.Victoria in Sor Long village, Chin State
Mt. Victoria is also known as “Mother Earth Mountain” or “Nat Ma Taung” or
“Khaw Nau Sone”. It is a protected area as national park which was established in
1994 and the area is about 279 square mile. The park offers virgin forest, wild orchids
and colorful butterflies. Visitors can experience Sor Long’s traditional ways of life by
sitting down to enjoy a local meal with the villagers and watching traditional dances
and musical performances.
Trekking around villages can provide to have a glance on unique Chin
cultures, customs and village life. Abundant bird species such as great hornbill ,
dramatic sceneries and en richment of rare plants are undeniable opportunities for
those who appreciate the natural environment and enjoy the eco adventures.
Moreover, overnight stay visitors can taste Chin traditional Taungzalat wine while
enjoying the traditional performances.
3.5.5 Mingala Bio garden at Kyaikthale village, Twante Township, Yangon
It takes only an hour and half to get to the village from the heart of the
Yangon. But, the views around the village are refreshing mind and soul of one who
has been stressed in everyday life of urban congestion. Visitors can observe and
participate in the c ultivation of organic farm, the creation of natural fertilizer and
pesticides, and the constructing a bamboo basket.
Visiting the Mingala monastic school, enjoying the healthy and delicious meal
prepared by local people and catching the traditional performances such as U Shwe
Yoe and Daw Moe during the meals are capable of luring not only international but
also domestic visitors. Moreover, one can go around the town, observe the anci ent
historical pagodas and visit pottery workshops in the local market.
3.5.6 The Ayeyarwaddy dolphin sanctuary in Mandalay Region
Local partners have developed the unique program in six Ayeyarwaddy River
villages between Mingoon of Mandalay Region and K yaukmyaung of Sagaing Region
where visitors can observe the traditional fishing methods and how to cast a net taught
by local fishermen and fisherwomen. Moreover, villagers can offer the photo tour by
accompanying the fishermen in the early morning on thei r daily fishing routine and
calling the Ayeyarwaddy Dolphins for help.
The boat trip in the Ayeyarwaddy River is a marvelous opportunity to observe
wildlife, especially water birds such as Ruddy Shel duck, Chinese spot -billed duck,
Asian openbill and man y black kites and Cormorants. Visitors can observe local life


in all its fascinating forms – the architecture, the local people, the rare species, the
unique traditional activities and the old wooden monastery, pottery, making bamboo
hat and cigar, grinding peanut with cow to produce oil.
3.5.7 Tamarind Lake Village in Magway Region
Tamarind Lake Village or Magyikan Village is situated in Salay Town, Chauk
Township of Magway Region. That is approximately an hour drive from Bagan. The
ancient religious monu ments from the Konbaung Dynasty ( late 19
th Century) are
trademarks of Salay Town. Yoke -sone monastery is most famous place for the
The village was created as an alternative livelihood for the locals to preserve
an d present the lovely local culture of Myanmar rural society to the visitors. Visitors
can be put up in the authentic local houses of the villagers and can enjoy local
traditional activities, learn the culture of people of the Magyikan Village while
trekkin g nearby villages. Then , they can taste the delicious traditional meals and local
food products such as mote -pyar -thalat, ride traditional bullock carts around the
village and visit to the Salay tamarind juice production site.
3.5.8 Pa-O self- administrativ e zone in Shan State
The CBT sites for exploring Pa -O ethnic culture, arts and crafts have been
established at four villages in Nyaungshwe and Taunggyi townships in Shan State.
Visitors can taste Pa- O traditional curry, fruits and cereals. Then, visitors may
participate in seasonal ceremonies with the local villagers.
Visitors can also enjoy the Pa- O traditional dancing accompanying with
traditional musical instruments, observe the local farmers’ lives and hill cultivation.
On the trekking tour, visitors can have a glance of traditional handicraft industries,
blue and hazy mountains, and local ways of life, seasonal crop plantations and ancient
historical pagodas, panoramic view from summit of the mountain.
3.5.9 Myaing CBT in Magway Region
Myaing CBT is located in Magway Region and the CBT site is also close to
the famous ancient city of Bagan and Nyaung- Oo in Mandalay Region. ActionAid
Myanmar initiated the CBT project in collaboration with four villages in that dry zone
area of Myanmar. It aimed to foster alternative livelihoods opportunities by providing
hospitality skills training and employing interested community members and to
benefit the wider community by creating a community fund in which a portion of
tourism revenues can be used to fund communit y-wide development projects.


During the trip, visitors can observe the livelihood activities of local peopl e,
trekking in the village, tours around the village by riding bicycles, plant in the defined
areas of cultivation, participat e in novation ceremony occasionally, apply Thanakha
(Myanmar traditional makeup) and enjoy local transportation with bullock cart.



4.1 Profile of Twante Township
Twante is a township in the Yangon Region of Myanmar and it is located west
a cross the Hlaing River from city of Yangon. Twante canal is the longest manmade
canal in Myanmar. The area of Twante Township is 179.09 square mile. Twante
Township is bordered by K yimyintdine, Dala and Seikkyikhanaungto Township to its
east, Kawhmu Township to its south, Maubin and Nyaungtone Township to its west
and Htantapin and Hla ingthayar Township to its north (GAD, 2018) .
Twante Township is composed of 234 villages which included 52, 307
households. According to the statistics of General Administrative Department, the
total population of Twante township is 227, 953 at the end of March, 2017. Farming,
livestock, fishery and pottery services are main vocational activities of the township.
It takes around an hour and half (46 km) to get to the township from Yangon through
Hlaingthayar -Twante Road.
There are three main options to get to Twante. The first one is heading south
from Hlaingthayar along the Y angon-Pathein Road. The second one is taking a
commuter ferry from Botahtaung jetty in downtown Yangon to Dala. It is needed to
hire a motorbike or taxi to continue the 25 km trip along the Dala -Twante Road after
reaching the Twante Jetty. The last option is to take the boat from the Mawtin Jetty in
downtown Yangon. Boats from that jetty are headed for Myaungmya in Ayeyarwaddy
Region and stop off at Twante along the way.
4.1.1 Tourist attraction sites in Twante Township
Shwesandaw Pagoda (Golden hair relic pagoda) is one of the famous sites in
the township and it is also believed that it hold strands of hair from the head of
Gautama. The annual pagoda festival is celebra ted in April (Myanmar New Year). It
is visited by both local and pilgrims from across the region. Visitors can watch the


ancient machinery performances of the Ten Great Birth Stories of Buddha . They are a
set of stories from the Jataka tales describing the ten final lives of the Bodisattva who
would finally be born as Siddhartha Gautama and e ventually become Gautama
Buddha. Though such kinds of art were performed the same in other pagodas since
the ancient times, only Twante Shwesandaw Pagoda still maintains the historical
machinery performances nowadays.
Maungtee Pagoda is situ ated within the Sann Village which is near the
Twante -Kawhmu junction. The pagoda is famous for its ancient religious architecture
and became a protected site in 2008 and has been maintained by Yangon Division’s
Department of Archaeology, National Museum and Library si nce then. The
uniqueness of the pagoda is that the bottom half of it was constructed with dark
laterite while the top was pictured with gold paint.
On closer inspection, the laterite base appears perforated with tiny holes. It is
believed that the wishes of King Anawrahta were written on the votive tablets and
inserted into the cavities of the holes. It is estimated by experts that the Maungtee
Pagoda was built in the 11
th century.
Snake Pagoda which is also known as Boungtawchoke Snake Pagoda , located
on a raised structure at the center of lake about 30 minutes from Twante. There are
over 40 live snakes which are pythons and boas of assorted sizes coexisting together
without having any signs of hostile at the pagoda. They do not bite anyone, but just
sleep in donation boxes or on the stupa and wrap themselves around ceiling rafters.
Pilgrims can donate money to supply the snakes with milk because they do not eat
meat . There are also huge amount of fishes in the lake and visitors can treat popcorn
and bread to fishes.
Pottery workshops in Oh -Bo quarter are also famous for its ceramics industry,
which reached its peak in the 15
th and 17th centuries. Traditional pottery pots
produced in Twante are popular throughout Myanmar even today. Visitors can
observe t he kiln sites, process of creating and examples of ceramics produced in
Twante. The ceramics have various sizes, shapes, colors, patterns and uses. But, the
industry has suffered a lot in previous years for the rising costs of transporting goods.
Though there were over 40 pottery workshops in town once, nowadays only about 10


4.2 Brief Introduction to Com munity -based Tourism in Kyaikthale Village
The village of Kyaikthale can be divided into three parts – north, south and
middle. The CBT site is located within the area of middle part of the Kyaikthale
Village. According to the head of the village, population of middle part of the village
is about 200 people. The project was initiated by Colonel Khin Zaw who is the
founder of Tour M andalay in February 2017.
At the beginning of the project, the initiator requested the approval from
Karen Ethnic Affairs Minister Naw Pan Thinzar Myo during her visit to Twante
Township. After receiving approval from the minister, he held the community
discussions to explain about the contributions of the project. Later, community
assigned the head of the village and two authoritative persons as focal persons to
represent the decisions of the community people.
The marketing strategies of the Kyaikthale CBT village are the marketing
linkages with Tour Mandalay and creation of official website and a page on social
media such as Facebook. The target groups are not only international tourists but also
domestic visitors who are getting tired with urban hecti c life.
The serv ices offered at the CBT site are experiencing the livelihoods of local
people, cultivating the plants in organic ways by using the natural fertilizer and
organics, bicycle tour around the town, enjoying the local performances and
partici pating in the philanthropic activities of the community such as monastic school,
primary school and village charity group. There are six lodges for visitors which are composed of two large rooms in a
lodge that can cover three beds . For an adult f oreigner, it is charged with 15 USD per
a day t rip without renting room and 17 USD per day with the rental price of room. For
a child under six years of age, it is charged 6 USD per day. Lunch prepared from the
output of the organic farm of bio garden and fresh mea t from the Twante local market
will be served during the day trip. To spend a night in C BT, it is charged with 50~55
USD according to the num ber of beds for an adult and 25 USD for a child.
For a local visitor, it is charged with 8, 000 MMK including lunch and bicycle
tour around the town. Child under 12 years of age will be charged only 6,000 MMK.
Taking a room for day trip will cost 13,000 MMK. To spend a night in CBT will be
charged 30,000 MMK per room and 40,000 MMK per room according to the number
of beds. Inserting an extra bed will c ost 20, 000 MMK.


4.2.1 Major A ttractions at the Kyaikthale CBT
The major attraction of the site is Mingala Bio Garden where visitors can
observe the organic ways of cultivating the plants. He or she can experience the daily
lives of gardeners by participating in the process of organic farming. There are plants
of edible fruits and vegetables such as sweet potatoes, gourd, pumpkin, long pea, lady
finger, chi li, cucumber, pine apple, bamboo sprouts, banana, guava, mango, cashew,
lime, basil, watercress and jackfruit. Moreover, there are many flowers growing to
keep the compound decorated and bamboos to use as inputs in the making of
The techniques u sed in organic farming are quite attractive to local and
international visitors because there is no use of chemical fertilizer or pesticide.
According to the agricultural technician, it is used basil as a natural fertilizer by
growing near the plants which are favorites of pests, mites and flies. If it is severe, the
combination of two spoons of diesel, four spoons of detergent, and four spoons of salt
and grinding chili can be used to kill the unwanted pests. The natural fertilizer is
prepared by mixing the feces of bovine, grass, ashes, and rice -rinsed water.
The meal prepared from the products of the organic farms is famous for its
fresh and delicacy. The well -trained cooks have the excellent skills in preparing the
meals. They do not keep the meat and ve getables in the fridge because they assumed
that it can reduce the quality of the items. So, it is necessary to book for meals at least
one day before the arrival to prepare the delicious dishes. If visitors are willing to
prepare the meals by themselves, the service providers can arrange the kitchen for
The Mingala monastic school is located near the CBT site and it takes only 3
minutes to get there. There are over 800 students including orphans and poor children
learning the education at the monast ery. Visitors can observe the monastic education
and can donate the meals or money for the necessities of the school. The organic farm
from the CBT site is also supplying the vegetables and fruits for that school. Weaving the bamboo baskets for bean sprout is another attraction of the
village. Some local people weave the basket as part -time livelihood activities. Visitors
can learn the way of making a basket from the local people by imitating the works.
Sometimes, they can invent the designs of lanterns and dustbins by using bamboo
Local performance named U Shwe Yoe and Daw Moe is delight of visitors to


enjoy the show after or during the meals. The couple and six children from the village
perform the show which is the heart of visitors because it is capable of making mind
fresh and amused. Mostly, this dance is specially performed only on weekends
because most of the performers are students.
Sightseeing tour around the town and Twante Jetty can lure the tourists
because there are many ancient historical pagodas around the town. Visitors can
observe the ancient architecture of his torical pagodas currently under the supervision
of Yangon Heritage Trust. The local market and pottery workshops are also worth
visiting for tourists. The handicraft s made from clay and earth is adorable souvenirs
for visitors. The uniqueness of color and design possesses irresistible persuasions to
people who love the traditional art.
4.2.2 Overview of Employment status at the CBT in Kyaikthale Village
There are 31 total staff s who get involved in providing services to visitors. It
includes full -time and part -time employees. Among them, 30 staff s are local peopl e
and only agricultural technician is from Kawhmu. They are described in table 4.1.
Table 4.1 Description of employment at the CBT
Position of staff Number of staff Local or not Full time or Part-time
Coordinator 1 Local Full time
Agricultural technician 1 Kawhmu Full time
Gardeners 5 Local
Two are full time
Three are part -time
Guard 1 Local Full-time
Cleaner 5 Local Part-Time
Driver 1 Local Full-time
Cook 4 Local Part-time
Hostess 4 Local Part-time
Receptionist 1 Local Full-time
Performers 8 Local Part-time
Total 31 – –


4.3 Survey Profile
Surveys were conducted by using following survey methods and sampling
4.3.1 Survey Method
Qualitative approach was used in conducting interviews to encourage the
participants to be able to express their opinions. An exploratory case study method
was applied with an objective of providing a detailed description from the
perspectives of local people. The defined area of the study is Kyaikthale Village,
Twante Township.
4.3.2 Sampling Procedure
There are 10 key informants included in the study and the sampling procedure
for interview is used a combination of two types of non- probability sampling:
purposive and snowball techniques. The purposive sampling is used because it is
needed to select the sample based on prior perceived knowledge in areas that will
contribute to the overall research goals. The snowball technique is used because the
participa nts sometimes referred to the persons with specialized information about the
The majority of interviews were conducted at the community- based tourism
site of Kyaikthale village and the res ts were carried out at the dwellings of
interviewees and school. The characteristics of the interviewees are stated in table 4. 2.
There were some unique characteristics which emerged among the different
resident types. Type 1 residents , such as tour coordinators and tour guides, who
derived a high level of income from tourism, were mostly between the ages of 20 and
50 years who had received some level of formal education. Type 2 residents such as
cooks for tourists who received tourism income regularly with a medium frequency
wer e primarily female residents between the ages of 30 and 50 years who generally
took the roles of mothers and housekeepers in the family. Type 3 residents such as
restaurant workers who received tourism income directly but on an infrequent basis
can be people from different groups of age and education. Type 4 residents such as
people whose occupation is unrelated to tourism and did not have any direct contact
nor receive money from tourism had the greatest diversity in terms of gender and age.
The fifth resident group such as village authoritative persons is responsible for
decision making process as the representatives of the community side and all were
male members. They were also involved in maintaining tourism generated revenues


for the village and had a responsibility for ensuring the overall well -being of the
community. The final and sixth group of residents such as development workers and
missionaries is composed of external figures who were not direct involved with
tourism in Kyaikthale Village, but st ill instrumental in developing tourism there.
Table 4.2 Characteristics of the Participants
Occupation Male Female
Types of

Community leader or Coordinator

1 Type 1
Representative members – Village head and former
village head 2 Type 5

Trail guide (local)

1 Type 1

Teacher as development worker

1 Type 6

Local business owners – Traditional snack seller
and basket makers for bean sprouts

2 Type 3
Cleaner 1 Type 2


1 Type 2


1 Type 4
Total 5 5

4.4 Perceived Effects
The effects that were perceived by local people which included in six types of
residents are categorized into economic, enviro nmental and sociocultural effects. The
following are quotes taken from interviewing Section A (see in Appendix A)
The bamboo -basket maker who is included in type 3 resident stated that
“A person per household attended the first discussion of CBT . But, we cannot join
every meeting because we have to struggle with our own affairs. So, we set our
village head and for mer village head as represent ative decision members for us . They
will do everything good for the village” .


The teacher who is included in type 6 resident stated that
“In the first introduction of CBT planning, I thought we will be moved to new place
to i mplement the tourism site. But, this tourism is not like that and it also give us
many benefits.”
The silversmith who is involved in type 4 resident stated that
“I don’t know much about the community fund and how to share it for the welfare of
the communi ty. These are just done by the decision of representative members and we
have not received much information about it”.
4.4.1 Economic Effects
The followings were resulted from interviewing questions of Section B (see
Appendix A). The income of household has increased because of employment opportunities
created from CBT. Young students and women are provided a rare opportunity of
part -time job to contribute to the households. That is the most significant chance that
only CBT can offer for the benefi ts of the rural community. Local products and
traditional snack s can be sold at higher prices.
An account of community fund has been created for happy occasions and sad
occasions of the community. A certain portion of profit from CBT goes to the account
th at is joint -opened by two members of Trust. The fund can be used to repair the
roads or streets, donate the Mingala monastic school. It can help the local community
to some extent. Infrastructural development is most visible impact among the community
memb ers. The streets of the village are destroyed during the rainy seasons in the
previous years due to busy transportation. But, it became satisfactory after the
initiation of community- based tourism due to regular maintenance provided by CBT
employee s. At ni ght, there is light all over the place and the local community feels
less worried from the danger of bad people intentionally staying in the dark. The primary school teacher at the village school stated that the headmaster had
planned to come out a library for the mothers who are waiting for their children . It
aimed to result not only to provide the shelter from the weather but also to create the
reading session for them. But, it was delayed due to constraint of budget. But, the
library of the primary school in Kyaikthale village had been constructed by the
workforce of tourists who visited the CBT. That could relieve the burden on the
school and on the families of the students. Moreover, many visitors donated books


and funds for the library.
There is concern from the local community is that the price of land has been
increased to the unprecedented level in the lifetime. But, it is not sure that the reason
of high land price is whether related with CBT or better conditions of transportation.
Table 4.3 Perceived Economic Effects
Identified Economic
Types of
residents who
Verbal Responses of participants
Type 1
Type 2

Type 3
Type 4
Type 5
Type 6 “The streets of our village are very bad
in the rainy season. But, they were in
good conditions due to CBT” stated by
type 1,2,3,4 residents
“The ground in the front of our religious
building was muddy and
it was
inconvenient for monks who came and
received alms food. But, that ground was
cemented by the tourists who visited the
CBT last year” stated by type 1,5,6
“There was not much street -lights and
land-posts in the village, but we’ve got
enough streetlights after initiating CBT”
stated by type 1,2,3,4 residents

Type 1
Type 2

Type 3
Type 4
Type 5
Type 6
“It provided employment opportunities
for us” stated by type 1,2 residents
“I think it can give our people more
employment opportunities” stated by
3,4,5,6 residents
Raising amount of
community fund

School library was
finished in no time

Type 1
Type 5
Type 6 “There are over 5 Lakhs in our
community fund’s account” stated by
Type 5 resident
“Our plan to construct a library was
delayed for a long time due to budget
constraints. But, it is finished in no time
now” stated by Type 1, 5 and 6 residents


Local products and
traditional products
can be sold at higher
prices Type 1
Type 3 “It is more profitable to
sell traditional
snacks to CBT rather than selling on my
own” stated by type 3 resident
“Local products such as earthen pots are
sold on higher prices rather than selling
to local residents” stated by type 1 and 3
Increasing land price Type 5 “Our land price have been spiked up to
unheard level in my lifetime” stated by
type 5 resident

4.4.2 Environmental Effects
The followings are answered from interviewing the questions at Section C (see
in Appendix A). Hardly any of the respondents perceived that natural scenery would be
damaged by constructions related to CBT. One of the participants said:
“Visitors are eager to plant trees in the organic farm as a memorial of arriving here
and token of raising awarenes s for need to conserve the environment. They do not
litter any waste on the street too. They are disciplined and I imitate them not to litter
on the streets whenever I go outside”
People in the village take more caution to keep the environment clean becaus e
they do not want to disgrace the town. Moreover, staffs from the CBT take the duty of
regularly collecting the garbage every morning. They also place the dustbins at
regular distance in front of the houses. After collecting the garbage from the bins
ever y morning, they throw them to the dumping site. That created the environment to
be more clean and free from trash. The community perceives that systematic waste
management system causes benefitted to the environment.
There is no strayed dogs on the streets because it can do harm to the visitors.
So, the community feel s safe from the danger of mad dogs and children can play on
the streets. There is no perception of deforestation or water shortage problem from the


Table 4.4 Perceived Environment al Effects
Identified Environmental
Types of
residents who
Verbal Responses of participants
Better wastewater
management system Type 1
Type 3
Type 5 ”
Staff from CBT make the ditches to
get the better flow of contaminated
water and be free from bad odor”
stated by Type 1, 3, 5 residents.
Free from danger of
strayed dogs Type 2
“I have 3 children and I am used to
feel worried for my children of being
tten by strayed dogs on the streets.
Since the beginning of CBT, it was
relieved due to elimination of strayed
dogs” stated by Type 2 resident.
Better waste management

Environmental cleanliness Type 1
Type 2
Type 3

Type 4
Type 5 “There are garbage bins in the front
of every three houses and no need to
throw them away to the dumping
site. Staffs from CBT collect them
regularly every morning” stated by
Type 1,2,3,4,5 residents
“Villagers used to litter on the streets
before, it became more disci plined
after initiation of CBT because I
think that is imitated from the
foreigners and showing the
appreciation to the proper waste
collecting system of CBT site” stated
by Type 1,3,5 residents

4.4.3 Sociocultural Effects
In response to the questions t he participation of women at Section D of
Appendix A , some of the female participants commented as follows.
“Many women in the village cannot do any paid job in the past because we have to
care for our husband and children. But, we got part -time jobs in th e CBT site while
our children are studying at school. So, it is convenient for us because we can care our
children and can work there without disturbing our daily routines.”


“I couldn’ t work outside because I did not pass the matric exam and I cannot speak
Burmese language fluently. But, here I can work as a chef happily. That is my area of
expertise. Now, I can contribute my salary to my household like my husband.”
Community coordinat or who included as type 1 participant also discussed the
social effects of the CBT as follows.
“I don’t think that health care delivery system of public hospital is getting better along
with CBT initiative because we agree upon receiving emergency care and other health
care services cooperating with Pan Hlaing hospital. It is only 20 mins from here and
convenient for visitors”
Local participants have developed a feeling of being appreciated by the people
from different cultural backgrounds . They have also developed a sense of belonging
to conserve traditional costumes and culture .
There is no conflict between tourists and community members since the
beginning of the CBT. To the contrary to that fact, local people feel more relaxed in
communicating with visi tors. They felt no more shamed or fear upon seeing a
foreigner. Moreover, there are talks regularly at every month held to stimulate the
desire of loving culture and tradition.
There are also capacit y building programs to train the participants employed in
the CBT such as cultivating methods of organic farming, demonstration of using fire
extinguisher, and training at Khine Khine Kyaw Restaurant. That provides hygienic
way of proper management in handling food and enhances the health knowledge of
housekeepers. Previously, there was no part -time job for women in the village apart from
making the baskets to keep bean -sprouts. But, the opportunity created from the CBT
makes the women feeling of capability to supply for the part of household income
while att ending the household as a housekeeper.


Table 4.5 Perceived Sociocultural Effects
Identified Sociocultural
Types of
residents who
Verbal Responses of participants
Feeling of being
appreciated by people
from different cultural

Motivation to conserve the
traditional costume and

Fear of foreigners becomes
relieved than before
Type 1
Type 2
Type 3
Type 5
Type 6
“It is great that people fro
m different
countries pay visits to see and
experience our traditional way of life
and we are happy to be recognized
by different people” stated by Type
1,2,3,5,6 residents
“Most of the foreigners like our
dresses and they are happy when
they are wearing” stated by Type
1,2,5 and 6 residents
“We are afraid to see foreigners
before and it becomes more
comfortable to communicate with
them now even if we don’t
understand their language” stated by
Type 1,2,3 residents
Sense to love culture and

Capacity building

Women empowerment Type 1
Type 2
Type 4
Type 5
“There is a monthly talk at CBT
from NGO to love and appreciate
local culture rather than imitating
foreign culture” stated by Type
1,2,4,5 residents
“I learnt cooking from Khine Khine
Kyaw restaurant prepared by CBT”
“I learnt organic farming at Sir Phay
Thein” stated by Type 1 and 2
“We have never been offered
part-time jobs like that before. It is
really good to contribute to part of
family income by using our l eisure
time” stated by Type 2 residents




5.1 Finding s
The study of the community -based tourism regarding the positive and negative
effects of economic, environmental and sociocultural produced some key findings. In
examining the general knowledge concerning with the CBT initiative in the village, it
was documented that CBT had positive effects on the lives of people living in the
Kyaikthale Village regardless of gender, education, age, marital status, ethnicity or
social stat us. This study proved that the implementation of community- based tourism
is appreciated across the community and it also has the ability to change the attitudes
of local people positively towards tourism.
In regarding with the management of the CBT site in the village, it is noted
that limited representative numbers from the community side are involving in the
decision making process of how to share profits among the happy occasions and sad
occasions of the community. The rest of the local pe ople have little knowledge about
the management of the community fund. Building upon that experience, it would be
beneficial to place an initial emphasis on making the community as a whole aware of
what is being done, informing them of the regulations and on the merits of any new
development initiatives.
It can be said that it has brought significant positive effects to the community
especially in the environmental and sociocultural context such as capacity building
process and a feeling of empowerment in t he community from the opinions of
women. As the economic effects to the community, it showed lower results than
projected. Though it offers some potential to directly assist in poverty reduction in the
short and medium term at a small scale, it is question able for the long term to be more
sustainable and large scale.
Finally, the perspectives for the potential of CBT initiative are conditional
upon the project’s economic sustainability and its ability to enhance the community
participation. That will determine the future success or failure of the intervention.


5.2 Suggestions
From the lessons and experiences of the CBT initiative, it would be interest to
explore what kind of model should be developed to be applied to promote the CBT in
other areas and comm unities.
The linkage between tourism and agriculture should be strengthened. Apart
from providing meals for tourists, it should find more productive ways to keep them
getting involved in the production of souvenirs such as bamboo can be used as raw
materi als for bamboo cup and keychains. Secondary income generating opportunities
should be created for such as provision of the laundry services from the local
It is desirable if it can maximize the local input as far as possible. It means that
appr opriate visions, goals, objectives, targets, activities and marketing plans should be
created by community residents in a democratic manner and broad- based participation
should be encouraged.
Finally, the importance of having sustainable economic effects should be
considered while ensuring the positive environmental and sociocultural sustainability
in order to continue and strengthen the pro- poor tourism.



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APPENDIX A. Questionnaires for Interviews
The interviews wer e conducted to assess the effect s of the community-based
tourism on local people in Kyaikthale Village, Twante Township according to the
following questions.

Section A: General questions
1. Biographic informati on such as name, age, sex, occupation, contact
2. What is your specific role with regard to the CBT?
3. How did you get involved?
4. How long have you been involved ?
5. Who initiated the CBT?
6. Who were involved in the first discussion of the CBT?
7. What were the responses of the main stakeholders to the CBT?
8. Who decided on the representatives from the community side?
9. What are negative effects that you perceived due to CBT?
10. Do you think CBT is suitable for your community? Why?
Se ction B: Economic effects
1. Is there any effect on your household income because of CBT?
2. Does it create employment opportunities for local people?
3. How does it encourage wide profit distribution in the community?
4. Are there any changes in local products price because of tourism?
5. Has project encouraged the creation of secondary income generating
activities such as craft selling, food supply and laundry services?
6. Does it help to improve electricity in the community?
7. Does it help to develop the good c onditions of local roads in the
8. Do you think you have received altered transportation system because
of CBT?
9. Does it create the problem of increasing land price?


Section C: Environmental effects
1. Does CBT create the sense of love and care for the environment among
the community members?
2. Does it help to develop better waste management system in the
3. Does it help to develop better wastewater management system in the
4. Is there water shortage problem in the village because of CBT?
5. Does it cause deforestation in the area of village due to CBT?
6. Is natural scenery around the village damaged by constructions related
to CBT?
Section D: Sociocultural effects
1. Is your skill is already learnt or nurtured at CBT?
2. Is there any training program for local participants to get involved? If
there is, describe.
3. Does it cause to increase the number of immigrants or emigrants in the
4. Is there any conflict between the tourists and community members?
5. Does it help to improve their language skills from communicating with
6. Do you think women are empowered due to CBT?
7. Does it help to provide the sense to preserve local cult ure and
8. Does it cause to change the traditional ways of life of community?
9. Is there any change in delivery of medical care system related to CBT?
10. Does it help to spread the local culture and traditions to tourists?
11. Does it cause t o affect the modern fashion among teenagers in the
village like shorts or ways of dressing contradicted to Myanmar


APPENDIX B. Community- Based Tourism sites in Myanmar


APPENDIX C. Map of Twante Township


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