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1. Africa is the cradle of civilization. This is the first continent on which human culture and community emerged. 2. Africa is the only continent on which there are places where people have never walked in their lives. 3. The area of ??Africa is 29 million square kilometers. But four-fifths of the territory is occupied by deserts and tropical forests. 4. At the beginning of the 20th century, almost the entire territory of Africa was colonized by France, Germany, England, Spain, Portugal and Belgium. Only Ethiopia, Egypt, South Africa and Liberia were independent. 5. Mass decolonization of Africa occurred only after the Second World War. 6. In Africa, lives most of the rare animals that are not found elsewhere, for example, hippos, giraffes, okapi and others. 7. Previously, hippos lived throughout Africa, today they are found only to the south of the Sahara desert. 8. Africa has the largest desert in the world, the Sahara. Its area is larger than the US area. 9. On the continent is the second longest river in the world – the Nile. Its length is 6850 kilometers. 10. Lake Victoria is the second largest freshwater lake in the world. 11. “Thundering smoke” – this is the name of the Victoria Falls, on the Zambezi River, the local tribes. 12. The length of the Victoria Falls is more than a kilometer, and the height is more than 100 meters. 13. The noise from falling water from the Victoria Falls extends 40 kilometers around. 14. On the edge of the Victoria Falls there is a natural pool called the Devil’s. You can swim along the edge of the waterfall only during a drought, when the current is not so strong. 15. Some African tribes hunt hippopotamuses and use their meat for food, even though hippos have the status of a rapidly declining species. 16. Africa is the second largest continent on the planet. There are 54 states. 17. In Africa, the lowest life expectancy. Women, on average 48 years, men – 50. 18. Africa is crossed by the equator and the zero meridian. Therefore, the continent can be called the most symmetrical of all existing. 19. It is in Africa is the only surviving miracle of the world – the pyramids of Cheops. 20. In Africa, there are more than 2000 languages, but the most common is Arabic. 21. It is not the first year that the Government of Africa has raised the question of renaming all geographical names obtained during colonization to traditional names used in the language of the tribes. 22. Algeria has a unique lake. Instead of water, it contains real ink. 23. In the Sahara desert, there is a unique place called the eye of the Sahara. This is a huge crater, with a ring structure and a diameter of 50 kilometers. 24. In Africa there is own Venice. The houses of the inhabitants of the village of Ganvier are built on the water, and they are moved exclusively by boats. 25. Hovik falls and the pond into which it falls, by local tribes is considered the sacred abode of an ancient monster, like Loch Ness. He is regularly sacrificed livestock. 26. Not far from Egypt in the Mediterranean, is the sunken city of Heraklion. He was discovered only recently. 27. In the middle of the great desert there are Ubari lakes, but the water in them is several times salty than the sea, so they will not save themselves from thirst. 28. Africa is home to the coldest volcano in the world Oy Doinio LeGai. The temperature of the lava, which erupts from the crater is several times lower than ordinary volcanoes. 29. In Africa there is a Colosseum, a Roman age built. It is located in El Jem. 30. And Africa has a ghost town – Colmanskop, which slowly absorbs the sands of the great desert, even 50 years ago, it was densely populated by residents. 31. The planet Tatooine from the movie “Star Wars” is not a fictitious name at all. Such a city exists in Africa. It was here that the shooting of the legendary film took place. 32. In Tanzania, there is a unique red lake, the depth of which varies depending on the season, and along with the depth the color of the lake changes from pink to rich red. 33. On the territory of the island of Madagascar there is a unique natural monument of stone forest. High thin rocks resemble a dense forest. 34. In Ghana, there is a large landfill, on which household appliances are brought from all over the world. 35. Unique goats live in Morocco, climb trees and eat leaves and branches. 36. In Africa, it produces half of all the gold that is sold in the world. 37. In Africa, the richest deposits of gold and diamonds. 38. In the lake of Malawi, which is located in Africa, the most varieties of fish live. More than in the sea and the ocean. 39. Lake Chad, for the past 40 years, has become less, almost 95%. Previously, it was the third or fourth largest in the world. 40. The world’s first sewer system appeared in Africa, on the territory of Egypt. 41. In Africa, there are tribes that are considered to be the highest in the world, as well as captivity, which are the smallest in the world. 42. In Africa, the health care and medicine system is still poorly developed. 43. More than 25 million people in Africa are considered HIV-positive. 44. An unusual rodent lives in Africa, a naked digger. His cells do not age, he lives up to 70 years and does not feel pain from cuts or burns at all. 45. In many African tribes, the bird is a poultry and serves as a guard against snakes and rats. 46. ??Some lungfish that live in Africa can burrow into dry land and experience a drought in this way. 47. The highest mountain in Africa, Kilimanjaro, is a volcano. Only he had never erupted in his life. 48. In Africa, there is the hottest place in Dallol, the temperature here rarely drops below 34 degrees. 49. Agriculture produces 60-80% of Africa’s GDP. Africa produces cocoa, coffee, peanuts, dates, rubber. 50. In Africa, most countries are considered third world countries, that is, poorly developed. 51. The largest country in Africa is Sudan, and the smallest is the Seychelles. 52. The top of Mount Cantalou, located in Africa, has a top not sharp, but flat as the plane of the table. 53. The Afar hollow is a geographic area in the eastern part of Africa. Here you can watch the active volcano. About 160 strong earthquakes take place here a year. 54. The Cape of Good Hope is a mythical place. Many legends and legends are associated with it, for example, the legend of the flying Dutchman. 55. Pyramids are not only in Egypt. In Sudan, there are more than 200 pyramids. They are not so high and famous as those that are located in Egypt. 56. The name of the continent comes from one of the tribes “Afri”. 57. In 1979, the most ancient footprints of man were found in Africa. 58. The most densely populated cities in Africa are Cairo. 59. The most densely populated country is Nigeria, the second is Egypt. 60. A wall was built in Africa, which was twice as long as the Great Wall of China. 61. The first to notice that the hot water freezes in the freezer faster than the cold, was an African boy. In honor of him, this phenomenon was named. 62. Penguins live in Africa. 63. The second largest hospital in the world is located in southern Africa. 64. The Sahara desert is increasing every month. 65. In South Africa, there are just three capitals: Cape Town, Pretoria, Bloemfontein. 66. On the island of Madagascar live animals that are not found anywhere else. 67. In Togo, there is an ancient custom: a man who made a complement to a girl must certainly take her as his wife. 68. Somalia is the name of both the country and the language at the same time. 69. Some tribes of African Aborigines still do not know what fire is. 70. The tribe of Matabi, who lives in the territory of West Africa, loves to play football. Only instead of the ball they use the human skull. 71. Matriarchy reigns in some African tribes. Women can contain male harems. 72. On August 27, 1897, the shortest war in Africa lasted 38 minutes. The government of Zanzibar announced the defeat of England, but it was rapidly broken down. 73. Graça Machel is the only African woman who was twice the “First Lady”. The first time she was the wife of the President of Mozambique, and the second time – the wife of South African President Nelson Mandela. 74. The official name of Libya is the longest name in the world. 75. African Lake Tanganyika is the longest lake in the world, its length is 1435 meters. 76. The Baobab tree, which grows in Africa, can live from five to ten thousand years. It stores up to 120 liters of water, so it does not burn in the fire. 77. Sports brand Reebok chose its name in honor of a small, but very fast African antelope. 78. The trunk Baobab, can reach 25 meters in volume. 79. Inside the trunk of the baobab is hollow, so some Africans arrange inside the tree of the house. Enterprising residents open the restaurant inside the tree. ATZimbabwe, in the trunk opened the station, and in Botswana – The prison. 80. In Africa, very interesting trees grow: bread, milk, sausage, soap, candle. 81. Only in Africa does the insectivorous plant of Hydnor grow. It can rather be called a fungus – a parasite. The fruits of hydron are consumed by local people. 82. The African tribe of Mursi is considered the most aggressive tribe. Any conflicts are resolved by force and weapons. 83. In South Africa The largest diamond in the world was found. 84. South Africa has the cheapest electricity in the world. 85. Only on the coast of South Africa are more than 2,000 drowned ships, whose age is more than 500 years. 86. In South Africa, three Nobel Prize winners lived on the same street. 87. South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique demolish some borders of national parks to create one big reserve. 88. In Africa, the first heart transplant operation was performed in 1967. 89. There are about 3000 ethnic groups living in Africa. 90. The largest percentage of malaria cases in Africa is 90% of cases. 91. Snow cap Kilimanjarois rapidly melting. Over the past 100 years, the glacier has melted by 80%.

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1.Summary
?”Sometimes, lighter is better ” the advertising slogan of a prestigious brewing company, Heineken Lager Beer has been criticized as a racist advertisement in 2018.
?Heineken N.V. , a Dutch brewing company has been in the brewing industry for more than 140 years, not only well-known because of their alcoholic drinks but also success to impress the consumers with attractive commercials.
?
2.Issue
?”Sometimes, lighter is better “commercial video shows a white bartender pass a bottle of Heineken to black woman , a black guitar player , another black woman at the end pass to a white girl then shows the caption of “lighter is better ” at the end of the advertisement .
?The actual meaning of the word “lighter” this video is the alcoholic concentration more dilute and calories lesser but “lighter” can become more sensitive and easily lead some consumers link to the discussion of complexion and black or sensitive white issue due to the way they convey message of the advertisement.
?This advertisement will easily mislead customers that white is better than black and the black people is always wrong .
3.AMA code
?This advert does not obey responsibility ,one of the AMA code of ethics , as the company failed to think rational and be responsible to the society during they promote their products. Feagin (2014) points out that today’s world a large number of white attempts to break the vicious cycle of racism from the past and some institutions in American also start to have courses such as Stereotyping 101 or Racism 101 to instill knowledge about history of racist . Therefore, the community more aware with the racial sensitive issue compare to the past .’Lighter is better’ may misguide young children to link the word ” lighter” to the ” complexion lighter ” . Wrong concept and moral value will be instilled since they are normally too naïve and lack of knowledge about light alcoholic drink.
?Apart from responsibility, Heineken N.V. has also broken the principles of AMA code by showing disrespect action and unfair treatment to different races . Deciding the way to promote products before advertising is an utmost import mission for the marketing department. The word “Lighter” seems like the company only focus their market target on white and neglect the black. Besides lower the sales of products, the employees who are black will also feel themselves being offended thereby affect the productivity . Hence, fail to respect can be an obstacle for company development. *citation
?Nevertheless , Heineken N.V. still be openness when facing those criticisms .Snider (2018) reports that Heineken N.V. had removed the advert from the media , apologizes for their mistake and explained that they supposed to mark clearly about the word “lighter”. They accepted judgement from consumers and took action with it .
4.Criticsm
?Heineken N.V. has professional and reliable marketing structure team to discover variety ways to promote their alcoholic products . This comes in question : “why such famous company still making this kind of big mistake? ”
? It is hard to not thinking that they might use the chance of the racism topic to grab some others attentions
thereby promoting their drinks since the hot or controversial topic always wins more media exposure .
?In addition , using sensitive word to promote product is unethical because it may have negative impact on global peace . The concept of global village has been spread out rapidly but Dixon(2009) mentions that if we do not respect others culture ,language, economics and basis mean of survival , it will loss the meaning of the definition of “global village “. Thus , ” lighter is better ” slogan , a 30-second commercial video seems only shows little negative effect on the community but the power of language may cause a huge global issue .

5.Suggestion
Lastly , Heineken N.V. should avoid using all of the sensitive word which relates to complexion . To promote light Heineken alcoholic drink , sunlight might be a suitable component to represent the word of ” light” . For example ,a group of people enjoy drinking light Heineken after playing volleyball at the beach under the shines of the sun . This can lead consumers to link to think that “light” is more healthier and better .

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6.Conclusion
?In conclusion, Heineken N.V faced financial loss as they pull all the advertisements after outcry over racism . .Reputation of the company over the past has also affected . The strong bonding between customers and seller maybe be damaged as the emotional of customers will be affected since the company failed to comply the AMA code of ethics . Company should always keep their advertising ethical not only to uphold
brand reputation but also protect the customer rights .

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1. In its early stages (1992-1999) as a microwave manufacturer
a. What would you consider the order qualifiers for Galanz? (1 point)
Quality is touted to be a pertinent factor for order qualifiers owing to the provision of reliability to the users. The delivery of products is also considered as order qualifier. In tandem Galanz had to offer an affordable price range.

b. What would you consider to be the order winners? (1 point)
Low-cost production capabilities and cost leadership over peer brands is a competitive advantage of Galanz. This ability aided the company to sell microwaves at a lower price than the industry competitors. The company has strategized an affordable product which created a cost leadership thereby allowing the company to gain sales and incremental market share.

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c. Identify the distinctive competence of Galanz and if it aligns with its order winners? Identify two Critical Success Factors (CSF) for Galanz in this early stage. (1 point)
Maximum capacity utilization and cost leadership are the distinctive competences of Galanz. While competitive strategy and operational strategy of Galanz are the critical success factors in the early stage as explained below.
The competitive strategy adopted by Galanz was cost leadership that aided garnering increased market share in the local market in an aggressive manner by triggering a price war cycle in the Chinese market.
The operational strategy Galanz has focused on making use of resources by increasing production capability through a free production line transfer, running production 24 hours a day by fully utilized its production facility and labor with proper planning in the ever changing market. A strategic fit operation that has resulted in reduction of manufacturing costs through the operations strategies was the key point. The operations strategy supported with the competitive strategy which has translate in to low product costs, offering the company a high degree of flexibility.

2. Are cost, quality, flexibility, delivery, product variety, and after-sales service the usual operation’s objectives for most companies? For each of the following phases identify which objectives were prioritized by Galanz. Explain your answer.

a. OEM phase (1 point)
When Galanz debuted into microwave ovens market, the first strategy was to maintain low cost over its competitor. This aided in winning over market competition from the start. In the following phase of strategy the product quality attained pertinence to satisfy the customers overseas that required a quality product. The delivery of the products was another critical element to fulfill OEM obligations to their massive expansions pertaining to customer base across globe inclusive of overseas market.

b. ODM phase (1 point)
Due to the shortage of the main component of the microwave oven i.e. magnetron, Galanz had to migrate to ODM phase. This supply chain challenge forced innovation by developing their own magnetron and invest into related research and development. The aim of surviving the market and sustaining cost leadership was critical in this phase. Increasing market share by flexible prioritization was also followed.

c. OBM phase (1 point)
Galanz bloomed as a market leader by using the strategy of Cost leadership. The other pertinent strategies adopted included a well-managed supply chain to deliver the product to the consumer end and the compliance with respect to customer acceptable quality standards pertaining to the products. Hence the quality of product as well as price leadership were equally important for the success of the company. The company also involved itself into OEM and OBM business that was executed by a varied production strategy. Owing to the pertinent roles played by accuracy of the forecast and responsiveness in overall business strategy, the accuracy of delivery was a pertinent operations objective at this stage. The company conceptualized an offering of the branded microwave oven to K-Mart and Wall Mart stores across the country. As Galanz expanded across the globe rightly so sales and after sale services became the dominant business strategy respectively. The company lays stress on ample training being offered to the customer service staff in areas such as repair, handling complaints, warranty claims and the like for adept servicing of the consumers. The company was also researching and developing a number of low to high range based products those have complicated configurations in order to offer additional flexibility to consumers thereby gaining competitive advantage in the market place.

3. What are the operations challenges faced by Galanz as it seeks to balance its OBM business with its OEM/ODM business? (2 points)
Galanz OEM and ODM businesses were permitted for investing predominantly in their production operations without investing in distribution networks as well as customer service. As the business model was as OEM/ODM to major brands, the end consumer marketing as redundant as the sales was under customer’s brand. On the other hand, they could depute their resources focusing on product design and production as these domains held prominence with respect to OEM/ODM customers. A thriving OBM business to co function with existing OEM/ODM would necessarily possess certain operational challenges like:
• The risk of being perceived as competition to OEM customers
• Challenges related to respective sales and forecasting
• Production lines need to be tuned to handle product variation and low volume batches which may contain small batches required high variety.
• Company needed to invest in developing the customer service capabilities
• Required to established new distribution channels and networks
• Low brand awareness relating to overseas markets

4. According to the disruptive innovation theory of Bower and Christensen, would Galanz be considered a disruptor? If yes, what is the disruptive innovation? In your discussion, consider Galanz’s market entry strategy and its progression as a company. (2 points)
As per the disruptive innovation theory Galanz can be considered as such the disruptor. The low-end disruptive strategy that was followed by the company using low-cost Chinese labor, land, maximize capacity utilization through production planning, proper maintained as a part of operation strategy for manufacturing appliances for export also triggered the non-microwave owners pertaining to middle class in China to purchase the product. As the business model garnered market-enabling price points pertaining to domestic Chinese market, it was expanded globally. Galanz debuted from a low-end level, gained an equal status with transnational enterprises in a few years by focusing on the innovation, new product line, R;D and transformed as one of the major participants in global market rubbing shoulders with the giants. After the few years Galanz’s market share in domestic market increased to 76% in 2000 and captured a 40% of the world microwave oven market by 2001.

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