1. What is the crisis experienced in Erikson’s first stage of psychosocial development? How did Chystell resolve this stage? What was the outcome of the crisis? Was it favorable or unfavorable?
It isfavorable. Because chrsytell is a great kid and she also succeeds in activities or event at his school and does not worry on his parents chrystell because she has the right minds.

2. What is the crisis experienced in Erikson’s second stage of psychosocial development? How did Chystell resolve this stage? What was the outcome of the crisis? Was it favorable or unfavorable?

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Favorable. Because they wants to help or facilitate for their children

3. What is the crisis experienced in Erikson’s third stage of psychosocial development? How did Chystell resolve this stage? What was the outcome of the crisis? Was it favorable or unfavorable?

There may be a successful resolution at this stage because the case describes chrystell him and select his or her own play activity.

4. What is the crisis experienced in Erikson’s fourth stage of psychosocial development? How did Chystell resolve this stage? What was the outcome of the crisis? Was it favorable or unfavorable?

Favorable. She seemed to compare favorably with her peers in school because she had friends and did well scholastically

5. What could be expected in the fifth stage of Chrystell’s life according to Erikson’s theory?

I hope here it is wise to recognize or someone else and what he really is as a child

6. Erikson’s theory is sometimes described as a good guide for parents. Find examples of this guidance in the case study and describe them.

Chrystell parents positively reinforcing the act of potty training by noy
Scolding her when she had accidents


1. The Interview
Nursing is an awesome and forever changing field that I am excited to be a part of. On November 1, 2018, I had the opportunity to interview Nurse Debbie Martin, Debbie holds a Bachelor of Nursing Degree, and has been a nurse for over 20 years, Debbie currently works for the Emory University GI, Gastro, Urology Clinic in Atlanta, and is a Nurse Liaison at the facility. I asked Debbie what disease she saw most often in the clinic, and she immediately said, “Hepatitis C”. Nurse Martin described Hepatitis C as a ” Disease that is caused by a virus that affects the liver, and it probably the most fatal disease that is seen at the clinic”, I also asked Nurse Martin why she chose this disease , versus the other diseases that are seen in the clinic and she said “If she had to give a percentage out of 100 patients, she would say about 25-30 percent of the patients are affected with Hepatitis C”, and most patients have acquired the disease from Intravenous Drug use, or through Blood Transfusion.( D. Martin, Personal Interview, November
This paper will discuss the etiology and incidence of Hepatitis C, it will detail the prevalence of the disease, and how it affects the body, it will determine what signs and symptoms are common with this disease and will finally describe the treatments and prognosis of the disease.
2. Etiology
First, Hepatitis C virus infection is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (also referred to as HCV). It is hard for the immune system to get rid of hepatitis C from the body, and infection with hepatitis C usually develops into a chronic condition (Gompf, Bansal, Singal, Marks, 2018). Over many years, chronic infection with hepatitis C infects the liver and can cause liver failure. Because of transmission, HCV, can be acquired from Intravenous drug use. People who use illegal drugs with dirty needles are the most at risk for Hepatitis C. In developed countries, most of the new HCV infections are reported in I.V. drug users (V.K. Dhawan, 2018). HCV may also be transmitted through sexual transmission. However, studies of heterosexual couples have shown that such transmission is extremely inefficient. A higher rate HCV transmission is noted in men who have sex with men, especially those who practice unprotected anal intercourse and have HIV infection. (V.K. Dhawan, 2018)
3. Incidence/Prevalence
In the United States, the incidence of acute HCV infection has sharply declined during the last 10 years, but its prevalence remains high (V.K. Dhawan, 2018). According to US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates, 2.7-3.9 million people born from 1945 through 1965 in the United States have chronic hepatitis C which develops in approximately 75% of patients after acute infection (V.K. Dhawan, 2018). In the U.S., the CDC has estimated that approximately 29,718 new cases occurred in 2013. When the virus first enters the body there usually are no symptoms. Up to 85% of newly-infected people fail to get rid of the virus and eventually become chronically infected (Gompf et al., 2018). In the United States, HCV infection is more prevalent among minorities, such as black and Hispanic people, in association with lower economic status and educational levels (V.K. Dhawan, 2018). In addition, in the United States, genotype 1 is more common in black people than in other racial groups, and 65% of people with HCV infection are between the age of 30-49 years old. Those who acquire the infection at a young age have a somewhat better outcome, than those who are infected later in life (V.K. Dhawan,2018).

4. Pathophysiology
HCV is a single stranded RNA virus. The genome contains a single open reading frame that encodes a polyprotein of about 3000 amino acids. The virus is genetically unstable, which leads to multiple genotypes and subtypes. Genotype 1a and b account for most of the infections in the United States (Grossman, Porth, 2014). The natural targets of HCV are hepatocytes and, possibly, B lymphocytes. Viral clearance is related to the development and persistence of strong virus-specific responses by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and helper T cells (V.K. Dhawan, 2018).
5. Prognosis
Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is self-limited in 15% to 50% of patients, and chronic infection developed in 70%-80% of patients. Cirrhosis occurs within 20 years of disease onset in 20% of patients with chronic infection (V.K. Dhawan, 2018). The risk of cirrhosis multiplies in patients who acquired HCV infection from blood transfusion. Progression to HCC is more common in the presence of cirrhosis, and alcoholism (V.K. Dhawan, 2018). There are 8,000 to 10,000 deaths each year in the U.S. related to hepatitis C infection. HCV infection is the most common cause of liver transplantation in the U.S. and is a risk factor for liver cancer (Gompf et el, 2018)
6. Signs and symptoms
The incubation period for HCV infection ranges from 2 to 26 weeks. Most children and adults who contract the infection usually are asymptomatic (Grossman, Porth, 2014). Very few people experience hepatitis signs or symptoms such as dark urine, jaundice, or clay colored stools in acute or early infection. Over time, people with chronic HCV infection could develop signs of liver inflammation that suggests that HCV may be present. Infected individuals may become easily fatigued or complain of other symptoms (Gompf, et al, 2018).
7. Common Treatments
Direct-acting agents (DAA) are antiviral drugs that act directly on hepatitis C multiplication. They are taken orally, are well-tolerated, and cure over 90% of patients., treatment time is short, often 12 weeks, depending on drug and genotype. Like treatments for HIV, treatment of HCV is most effective if the drugs are given in combination. (Gompf, et al, 2018).
In August 2017, FDA approved an 8-week program of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir (Mavryet) for all HCV genotypes. Unlike some other regimens, this combination works whether the patient has cirrhosis or not (Gompf, et al, 2018).

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The vision of Yeo’s company is to be a market leading food ; beverage company with a global reach.

The mission of Yeo’s company is to provide our customers with high quality and best value products through the constant pursuit of innovation and excellence.

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About company
The company start from 1900 by founder, Yeo Keng Lian. Yeo Keng Lian is a native of Fujian, China who began his career at Zhangzhou which making soy cause with Yeo Hiap Seng Sauce Factory in 1901. After that, he immigrated to Singapore in 1930s where he re-established the Yeo Hiap Seng Suace Factory in 1938. In 1960, Yeo died at Singapore. The name Yeo Hiap Seng is of Christian origin with Hiap meaning unity of Christ as Yeo was. At 20 December 1955 in Singapore, this company incorporated as Yeo Hiap Seng Canning and Sauce Factory Private Limited and renamed to its present shorter name. Yeo’s stap to establish to overseas such as Canada, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia and US. Today, Yeo Hiap Seng Group have a lot of product that under the brand names of ‘Yeo’s’, ‘Cintan’, ‘Justea’, ‘SoyRich’, ‘Yeogurt’.

Yeo Hiap Seng (Malaysia) Berhad (Co. No. 3405-X)Lot 191, Jalan Utas 15/7, Seksyen 15, 40700, Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

Yeo Hiap Seng already have 9 manufactory which 3 of them in Selangor, 2 of them in Perak, others in Pulau Pinang, Kedah, Melaka, Pahang. Yeo’s also have others manufactory in oversea such as Indonesia, New Zealand, Australia, Europe, Singapore, IndoChina and US.
Operation Time
Yeo’s manufactory will open from Monday to Thurday from 9.00am to 6.00pm and Friday from 9.00am to 5.00pm.
Yeo’s have provide contact number, customer care line and email for consumer or buyer to contact them if they have any question and problem.

Tel: 03 5522 8000Customer Care Line: 1300 80 2828Email: [email protected]
2.0 4Ps
What is product? Product is everything that can be offer to market to get consumer attention to fulfil their unlimited wants. Yeo’s also provide product to fulfil consumer unlimited wants and there are beverage and food.

Beverage is the main product of Yeo’s. Beverage have so many type such as Hawthorn ; Tamarind, Juscool, Chrysanthemum Tea, Soy, Asian Drinks, PET Bottles, Yeogurt, Justea, Soyrich, Tropical Juice, Oceanic Drink and Hidden Valley. Besides, Yeo’s also provide other like food such as noodles, canned food and sauces.

Beverage Food
Hawthorn & Tamarind Noodle
Juscool (New) Canned Food
Chrysanthemum Tea Sauces
Soy Asian Drink Pet Bottle YeogurtJusteaSoyrichTropical Juice Oceanic Drink (New) Hidden Valley Table 1 shows list of beverage and food of Yeo’s
Yeo’s have come out a new beverage that is Juscool and Oceanic Drink. Juscool have 4 types of flavour that is apple, grape, passion fruit and peach. Oceanic Drink have 2 variants that is Oceanic Lime and Pineapple Drink. Most of the people familiar with Yeo’s Yeogurt , Justea, Soyrich, Chrysanthemum Tea and Asian Drink because all these drink can buy at coffee shop, grocery shop, shopping centre, supermarket and hypermarket.
PET bottle is a series that have many type of flavour such as chrysanthemum tea, soy, winter melon drink, lychee drink and black soy milk. There have 3 type of bottle, there are 350ml, 500ml and 1.5l pack sizes.

Asian drink is the most popular among Malaysian and there are lychee drink, winter melon drink, sugar cane drink, grass jelly drink, and ice lemon drink. Yeo’s also come out some new drink in Asian drink list, there are lemon barley drink, bird’s nest drink, longan red date and snow chrysanthemum. All Asian drink can calming and refreshing effect to counter heatstroke. The cooling effect for this beverage is to soothing for the throat and helps reduce body heat. Especially in hot and humid climates.

On the other hand, Malaysian also like to drink yeogurt because can digest system, can gain a source of protein and chill-free and remain fresh even keep in an ambient environment. There are 6 flavour as original yogurt, grape, mango, lychee, green apple and orange. All in boxes size and each of them have 250ml.
Noodles which have 3 types of noodles that is cintan noodles, grab mi and non-fried noodle. Cintan noodles have Curry, Asli, Mushroom Chicken, Assam Laksa, Tom Yam, Soto Ayam, Vegetarian, Vegetarian Curry, Goreng Spicy and Goreng Ala Indonesia. Grab-mi is a cup noodle and can cook in 3min.
Canned food have meat, seafood, vegetable and kaya. All canned food make convenience for customer and just in 2min. All high quality, tantalizing seafood delight with no preservatives ; no added MSG.
Last but not least, soya sauce from Yeo’s have been more than 100 years and still is the first choice among Malaysian. Soya sauce no added MSG and made from good quality Canadian non-GMO soybeans.

What is price? Price is the amount of money charged for a given product or service where it is the sum of all values that a user reduces to the benefit of owning or using the product or service.

There are 2 ways to determine the price, there are internal factor and external factor. First of all, cost is the main internal factor to determine the price. Yeo’s need to consider the cost involved in producing the product. This cost including both variable cost and fixed cost. Thus, while fixing the prices, Yeo’s must be able to recover both variable cost and fixed cost.

Furthermore, discount is the internal factor to determine the price. Discount is a deduction from an item’s price. Yeo’s often offer wide variety of discount to their customer. The more the customer buy Yeo’s product, the more the discount given to. Hypermarket like Giant, Tesco, The Store, Aeon Big and others will buy a lot from Yeo’s because can get a lots of discount and resell to customer to gain more revenue.
Besides, competitors is the main of external factor. Yeo’s need to study and survey for competitor’s price. This is because consumer will buy the product in low price, so Yeo’s need to put the price lower than other competitor
On the other hand, consumer is the external factor to determine the price. Yeo’s should consider various consumer factors while fixing the prices. The consumer factors that must be considered includes the price sensitivity of the buyer, purchasing power, and so on.
Otherwise, Yeo’s may also to consider the economic condition prevailing in the market while fixing the prices. At the time of recession, the consumer may have less money to spend, so Yeo’s may reduce the process in order to influence the buying decision of the consumers.

Product Size Price (RM)
Asian Drink 250ml (box)
1L (box) 1.00
PET Bottles 1.5L (bottle)
350ml (bottle) 5.65
Yeogurt250ml (box) 1.70
Cintan5 x 76g 3.79
Non fried noodles 330g
550g 3.20
Canned (Meat) 145g
405g 4.33
Canned (Vegetable) 425g 2.89
Table 2 shows list the price of Yeo’s in Tesco.

Consumer can compared the price with Tesco, Giant and others market to choose the lowest price of Yeo’s. Yeo’s is giving a different price to different consumer. Yeo’s do not list out the actual price in website because Yeo’s is doing the strategic of promotion.

What is promotion? Promotion is any communication used to inform and influence the customer to purchase the goods offered.
Yeo’s advertising can be seen and heard on television, newspapers, radio, magazines, social media and outdoor. Advertising is to attract attention from consumer and let them to get know to Yeo’s. Yeo’s have been doing a lot of advertising and find them in you tube and Yeo’s website.
Yeo’s have do public relations. Public relation is a broad set of communication activities used to create and maintain favourable relationship between an organization and various public groups, both internal and external. Example of public relation done by Yeo’s is “Program biasiswa #sayasihatbersamayeo’s”.

Sales promotion consists of activities or materials that are direct inducements to customers or salesperson. Yeo’s is doing “Drink and Win contest” with myNEWS.com. This is one of the sales promotion to attract consumer to buy Yeo’s product and gain consumer trust.

What is placing? Placing is the action of putting something in position or the fact of being positioned. Yeo’s is knowing by everyone in Malaysia and Yeo’s is an old brand in Malaysia. Not only children like to drink and eat, but adult also like it.
Yeo’s is a producer to agent to wholesaler to retailer to customer. Yeo’s can use agents to reach wholesalers. Agents are functional middlemen that do not take title to products and that are compensated by commissions paid by Yeo’s. Often the products with which agents deal are inexpensive, frequently purchased items. The wholesalers then sell the product to a large network of retailers. This channel is also used for seasonal products and by Yeo’s that do not have in-house sales forces.
Online is a place let others seller to sell their product, Yeo’s also have doing online selling. Yeo’s want to make their customer easy and convenience so they use online selling to let his customer can choose and take time to think before buy.

17221207620Strategic Analysis
00Strategic Analysis

right784860External Analysis
00External Analysis
7543804724404518660487680left784860Internal Analysis
00Internal Analysis
Chart 1: Types of strategic Analysis
SWOT analysis is the combination of internal and external analysis of certain organisation. Internal analysis consists of two elements which is the strengths and weaknesses while the external analysis consists the opportunities and threats. The purpose to make the internal and external analysis is to identify the assets, resource, skills, processes and aspects of the external environment of certain organisation.

Certain company may improve their services or product based on the SWOT analysis. The SWOT analysis of Yeo’s will be discussed further in this part.

Strengths is a types of internal analysis of strategic analysis. Strengths is the intangible characteristics of the business which give an organisation an advantage over other companies. Strengths also is the ability for a certain organisation to resist the force or pressure given by other competitors in meeting customers’ needs. Strengths can be controlled by improve the internal environment of organisation such as provide a cheaper price of services or products to increase the sales revenue of company. Strengths is important because it allows better in planning, management and decision making of an organisation.
The strengths of Yeo’s is known for its product innovations. Yeo’s origins in 1900 until now 2018 and all product can buy at anywhere. Besides, Yeo’s is well diversified food and beverage product portfolio compared to other company. Other than that, Yeo’s is all its health beverages are endorsed by Health Promotion Board not only that, Yeo’s is a brand’s long heritage and leadership position in Asian drinks market.
Weakness is the internal strategic analysis in the SWOT analysis. Weakness means the vulnerability of a business that may obstacles its ability to compete with others. Every company will have weakness in their business and this is not except the company that we had survey, Yeo’s.

Although Yeo’s is the brand’s long heritage and leadership position in Asian drinks market but the food division is yet to mark its presence in emerging markets like India, China and etc. Not only that, competition to its home grown beverages from the other bands the company distributes means limited market share.

Opportunities is a type of internal analysis of strategic analysis. Opportunities are the factors caused by external environment which can capitalise and improve the competition position of a certain organisation.
Yeo’s need create brand awareness in countries other than Singapore such as western countries. Yeo’s have been too long in beverage business, it should expansion into infant foods and related business. Not only that, Yeo’s need expansion into conventional flavours to cater to non-Asian customer and make some different type of beverage and food.

Threats is a type of external analysis of strategic analysis. Threats is a condition that exists factors which have potential to give an organisation a negative goal. Threats are uncontrollable, it can paralyse the organisation activities in long term. The company may collapsed if the organisation was not enough tough to overcome the threats.
Besides Yeo’s, there have a lot of others brand of beverage sell in Malaysia and have intense competition from the existing players in the beverage industry in emerging markets.

Yeo’s have emergence of healthy low calories beverages as potential substitutes emerging markets. This may damage company name and make consumer go buy other brand. Not only that, Yeo’s is growing unpopularity of canned foods. This make Yeo’s loss a lot of profit to produce canned foods compared to beverage.

SWOT analysis of Yeo’s highlights a number of internal and external strategic factors that managers must include in strategy development. Strength of Yeo’s should maintain as a brand’s long heritage and leadership position in Asian drinks market and make it more popular in other countries too. The weaknesses of Yeo’s is the food division is yet to mark its presence in emerging market like India, China and other countries. Yeo’s should try to sell their product at there to increase their market and popularity of brand.

Yeo’s should also take their opportunities to create a new brand to make their profit increase and increase market. Yeo’s can try to make a new food or new flavour of beverage followed consumers’ flavour. Yeo’s can export to other countries and not only in Asia. Yeo’s should reduce the threat and try make an adjustment for their canned food product.

First of all, Yeo’s is a beverage and food manufacturing which the founder, Yeo Kian Liang focus on healthy drink and foods. He wants to be market leading beverage & food company with a global reach. Yeo’s wants to provide their customer with high quality and best value products through the constant pursuit of innovation and excellence.
Yeo’s have many types of beverage with different of flavour, there are Hawthorn & Tamarind, Juscool, Chrysanthemum Tea, Soy, Asian Drink, PET Bottle, Yeogurt, Justea, Tropical Juice, Oceanic Drink and Hidden Valley. Those drink have its own function. Not only beverage, Yeo’s also have food such as canned food, noodles and sauce. All the noodles produce by Yeo’s have no colouring, no preservative & cholesterol-free. All the canned food do not have preservatives and no added MSG.
Yeo’s is a big manufacturing company, thus they have a lot of worker and have a management levels as well. The lowest in the pyramid must be employee. Employee contributing physical and mental energy to produce goods and services. The second lowest is manager. Manager is someone who communicate with employee and director. Director is the second highest in management pyramid. Director a person who in charge of an activity, department or organization. CEO is the highest level in management pyramid. A chief executive officer (CEO) is the highest-ranking executive in a company, and their primary responsibilities include making major corporate decisions, managing the overall operations and resources of a company, and acting as the main point of communication between the board of directors and corporate operations.

Yeo’s do the advertising through television, radio, newspapers, and others. This may help Yeo’s increase the popularity and reputation. When more people know about Yeo’s, there will have a increase in sales of products.

The SWOT analysis of Yeo’s should be referred to make sure the flow of company is always smooth and create the new strategy to stable the position of company based on the analysis.


Hawthorn ; Tamarind Juscool
Asian DrinkPET Bottles


Justea Tropical Juice

Cintan NoodlesGrab Mi
Non- fried NoodlesCanned Food (Meat)

Canned Food (Seafood)Canned Food (Vegetable)

Soya SauceOther Soya Sauce

Yeo Hiap Seng (2018). Yeo’s, The Natural Choice. Retrieved from http://www.yeos.com.my/William M.Pride, Robert J.Hughes and Jack R.Kapoor (2018). Foundations of Business. Lorong Chuan, Singapore: MINDTAP from Cengage.


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