1. More than 85% of Australians live within 50 km of the coast zone.
2. Australia – is the only country which occupies a whole continent.
3. Australia is one of the least densely populated countries in the world.
4. In Australia, electricity prices are considered to be the highest in the world.
5. The largest sand island in the world is also in Australia, its name is Fraser.
6. It is the sixth in the world, among countries, in terms of the size of its territory.
7. In 1880 Melbourne was the richest city in the world.
8. 91% of the country’s territory is covered by natural vegetation.
9. Boab trees are endemic of Australia. These trees can live for more than 2000 years.
10. Millions of wild camels represent a huge problem for the Australian ecosystem.
11. Didgeridoo is wind instrument originated from Australia and is one of the oldest in the world.
12. Australia has the longest fence in the world. Its length is 5.614 km.
13. Australia has three time zones.
14. The victory of Australian footballers over the team of American Samoa in the 31 – 0 has become a record for the entire history of international matches.
15. Australian camels are imported to Saudi Arabia.
16. There are 60 designated wine regions in Australia.
17. The largest coral reef in the world – the Great Barrier Reef, is located in the sea areas of Australia. Its length is 2030 kilometers.
18. Australia was one of the founding countries of the United Nations.
19. The Great Barrier Reef is the largest living entity on the planet.
20. The Melbourne city is the most ‘Liveable City’ in the world.
21. In Australia there is the world’s driest lake – Lake Eyre.
22. In 1892, a group of 200 Australians, dissatisfied with the local government, sailed to the shores of Paraguay and founded a colony there – New Australia.
23. The head of the country is British king or queen.
24. Australia is a country of immigrants.
25. Before the appearance of people, Australia was home to many unique giant animals.
26. Australia became the second country in the world where women received the right to vote.
27. The world’s oldest deposit of fossils was found in Australia 3.4 billion years ago.
28. In order to visit all the beaches of Australia, you will need more than 27 years.
29. Until 1902, bathing on the beach during the day was illegal.
30. In Australia there is a posinous octopus called Blue-Ringed Octopus. It causes complete paralysis and death in few minutes.
31. Until 1984, Anthem of Australia was “God Save the King / Queen.”
32. In the Australian Alps, snowfall is more than in Switzerland.
33. Box jellyfish in Australia killed more people than warts, sharks and crocodiles combined.
34. Murray River is the longest river of Australia. It is 2,548 km long.
35. Tasmania has the cleanest air in the world.
36. The average Australian drinks 96 liters of beer per year.
37. The world’s longest straight road is in Australia. It is 146 kilometers without any turns.
38. Wine barrels were the invention of Australians.
39. Every year in Brisbane, the World Cup in the cockroach races is organized.
40. In 1932, the Australian army declared war on the emu population in Western Australia. Surprisingly, they lost.
41. Somehow an Australian tried to sell New Zealand on eBay.
42. Voting for election is obligatory in Australia otherwise they have to pay fine.
43. Wave Rock in Australia is one of the oldest rock in the world.
44. Australia is in the list of top ten countries with highest standard of living.
45. In New South Wales, there is a place where coal burns underground for 5.5 thousand years.
46. Australia is among the richest countries in the world.
47. Captain James Cook landed on the eastern coast of Australia in the 1770s.
48. The largest tram network in the world is in Australia’s Melbourne.
49. Canberra was chosen as capital in 1908 as a compromise option, when both Sidney and Melbourne were eager to become the state capitals.
50. 63% of Australians are overweight.
51. In Western Australia there is a pink water lake called, Lake Hillier.
52. Australia is the only continent on earth with no active volcanoes.
53. In Australia Since 1979 no one has died from poisonous spiders.
54. The largest population of Greeks outside Greece is in Melbourne.

55. The national foods of Australia are roasted lamb, meat pies and barbecued sausage in bread.
56. Australians spend more on gambling than any other country.
57. Melbourne is considered the sports capital of the world because different kinds of sports develop here actively.
58. The national gem of Australia is Opal. It produces 97% of world Supply.
59. Australia has the largest pasture in the world. Its area is approximately equal to the territory of Belgium.
60. Once the country’s Prime Minister Harold Holt went to swim on the beach Cheviot. After that, no one else saw him
61. Australian football was invented specifically so that cricket players could keep themselves fit in the off-season.
62. Durack – the largest electoral district in Australia – is larger than Mongolia.
63. The mandatory seat-belt installation law was first adopted in Victoria in 1970.
64. Gay bar in Melbourne has the right not to let women into its premises.
65. Government postponed the televised debates during the election campaign in Australia because it was coincided with the final of the reality show “Master Chef”.
66. The first European to visit Australia in 1606 was Willem Janszoon.
67. In the following centuries, many Danish researchers came to Australia who created maps and called the continent “New Holland.
68. In the last 50 years, about 50 people have died from a shark bite in Australia.
69. The summer period in Australia lasts from December to February.
70. 50 million years ago, Australia and Antarctica were a single state.

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1. Two Americans – Charles Creighton and James Hargis in 1930 made one of the most “record” travel by car. The distance from New York to Los Angeles in 42 days in reverse gear.
2. The fastest truck among the trucks is the Hawaiian Eagle jet-powered truck.
3. The German Liebherr T 282B is the largest earth-hauling dump truck.
4. PeelP50 is the smallest car in the history.
5. When car radio appeared in cars, some states wanted to ban it, arguing that it could distract drivers’ attention.
6. The first production car was the Ford Model T, it was manufactured from 1908 to 1927.
7. To make the first million cars, Henry Ford’s company took 7 years. And after 132 working days – in 1924 – Ford has already made 10 million cars.
8. the first car, which exceeded the speed of 100 km / h, was an electric car. It was designed in 1899 by race driver Camille Jenatzy from Belgium.
9. DeLorean Motor Company released only one car – DeLorean DMC-12 .
10. Bugatti Veyron – the most expensive production car in the world, its cost exceeds 1.7 million dollars.
11. In Finland, Lada Kalina was renamed Lada 119, due to the fact that Kalina from the local dialect is translated as a crash or rattle.
12. The cheapest car in the world is Indian Tata Nano, its cost is only 2.5 thousand dollars.
13. Lamborghini started his business with the production of tractors.
14. Ferrari has long been a division of Alfa-Romeo
15. The first car accident occurred in 1891, in Ohio.
16. The world’s first car with gasoline engine was designed by Karl Benz in 1885.
17. In the USA, in the state of Rhode Island, drivers are forbidden to carry beer in the car, even if it is sealed.
18. The fastest time to remove the car engine and replace it with a new one was 42 seconds.
19. in Porsche cars, the ignition key is located to the left side of the steering wheel.
20. To date, Volkswagen owns companies such as Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Audi, Ducati, SEAT, Scania, Man SE, Skoda and Porsche.
21. One of the biggest traffic jams in the history by car was in the Netherlands due to ice, the traffic was 975 km long.
22. Mercedes Benz W125 has developed the highest recorded speed on the autobahn in Germany – 432 km / h. It happened in 1938.
23. The Swedish company SAAB was founded in 1937, but initially produced only military aircraft.
24. In Paris, the bus is the fastest mode of transport because for buses there are different lanes.
25. 92% of all new cars sold in Brazil use ethanol as a fuel, which is produced from sugar cane.
26. In Formula 1 racing, women can participate on an equal basis with men. However, in the whole history of the competition, only five women took part.
27. “The smell of a new car” consists of more than 50 volatile organic compounds and not always safe for human health.
28. On average, each car consists of approximately 30,000 parts.
29. The longest car in the world is a limousine 30.5 meters long.
30. Windshield wipers were introduced by a woman.
31. 1950 Cadillac El Dorado was equipped with a mini-bar located in the glove box.
32. The smallest armored vehicle is PAV1 Badger, created by Howe and Howe Technologies.
33. At a top speed of 408 km / h, Bugatti Veyron will consume the entire fuel reserve (with a 26-liter tank) in just over 10 minutes.
34. In 1916, 55 percent of the total number of cars in the world were Ford T cars. This record has never been beaten.
35. In 1924 Ford’s car was worth $ 265.
36. The Renault-Nissan Alliance is the largest automaker in the world today.
37. Toyota and Volkswagen are second and third largest automaker in the world.
38. According to statistics, 66% of drivers at the wheel listen to music, 53% talk with passengers, 27% communicate on a mobile phone, 9% manage to eat and drink, and 2% even shave and paint.
39. When Jai Singh, Maharaja Alwar visited the Rolls-Royce showroom in London, the seller considered that he would not have enough money for such a car. The insulted Maharaja bought ten Rolls-Royce, sent it to India , where he used cars as garbage trucks.
40. The first license plates appeared not on cars, but on horse-drawn carriages.
41. The BMW M5 engine is so quiet that the sound of the engine running is reproduced through the speakers so that the driver knows that the motor is running.
42. Bill Gates brought a Porsche 959 supercar even before this car became legal in the US.
43. The Alfa Romeo logo shows a snake that devours a person.
44. According to 2010 reports, there are approximately 1 billion motor vehicles on the road.
45. The first car, equipped with three-point seat belts, was released in 1959 by Volvo.
46. The world’s first “Rolls-Royce” was worth $ 600,000 (1906).
47. The most popular discovery in the automotive industry is considered to be the discovery of an internal combustion engine, when Carl Benz first installing it on the car.
48. Porsche in the 60s produced not only cars, but also tractors.
49. Every day around the world produces about 165,000 cars of different brands.
50. On January 1, 1910, the first racing car under the Alfa Romeo brand was produced.
51. According to data from 2008, there are only nine traffic lights in Cairo, where more than 18 million people live.
52. South African law allows for any degree of self-defense when it comes to the threat to life or property of a person. To protect vehicles from theft, traps, electric shock and even flamethrowers are popular.
53. Volkswagen in German means “people’s car”.
54. The first traffic light appeared in 1868 in London.
55. The first gearbox was invented by Louis Reno in 1900.
56. A person spends about 5 months of his life in waiting on red light.
57. Approximately one out of 4 cars in the world comes from China.
58. Millions of animals are killed every week by vehicles.
59. The logo of Mercedes-Benz represents its domination on land, sea and air.
60. More than 3,000 people die every day in car accidents.


1. Public Stigma model are described in the categories of different points such as stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. Stereotypes are mentioned in a way through mutual agreement with beliefs particularly in groups of people or a behavior as a whole. Most cases with stereotypes occur when an individual doesn’t have any experience with or the awareness towards PWD’s are exposed to the detrimental stereotypes along with the misguided views of disability. Prejudice can be described as unforgivable damaging attitude toward an outer group or also towards the members of that outer group. Discrimination is described as unfair and negative behaviors toward members of the outer groups due to the foundation of their association.
a. This model might influence why people without disabilities may choose to deny or minimize the possibility of acquiring a disability is mainly to avoid the influential effect on the public opinion of disability and the public’s response to people with disabilities. Also, whatever is considered normal won’t be normal tomorrow since the environment or culture are shifting and evolving their diagnostic criteria and methods. (Smart,pg.15)
b. People with psychiatric disabilities might not choose to seek for help and treatment because this may show discrimination and can be taken upon to themselves which will lead to creating self-stigma. Individuals that have mental illness recognize and believe the negative judgments are expressed and in effect will consider themselves as helpless unworthy of care, dangerous, and even take self-consideration that they are liable for their afflictions. In result will promote themselves to feel humiliated, low self-esteem, not being able to finish their goals.(Smart, pg.28)
c. The in-group /out-group model related to stigma and the way it is categorizing disabilities that it is necessary by displaying the out-group people to be with any kind of disabilities such as support cane for the blind, wheelchair for the crippled or having paralysis and for the in-group would be the “social norms” people in the society. The stigma model relates who to show prejudice and discrimination too.
d. Categorization such as labels and diagnoses depersonalize individuals with disabilities simply because individuals with disabilities are life lined with the services in order to survive and without it, diagnosis third-party payers will not compensate and also the government agencies won’t provide services and benefits making things very difficult for them. Increasing prejudice and discrimination are effected by self-image towards the disabled for an example with individual and another experience the same type and difficulty of disability and with the outcome with different circumstances, resources, values, interests and abilities. Categorization tends to lead to false stereotypes, such as the stereotype that all or most people with the same disability share important characteristics,
understandings, or opinion.
2. On page 20, Robinson compared the American Psychological Association (APA) as “corrupt referees”.
a. The point Robinson is attempting to make when he stated that “Just like that, Asperger’s was gone”…” You can do things like that when you publish the rules.” Robinson is trying to raise the context by saying the rule makers or the referees are shady and by creating the game and making the game rigged for the out-group which are the individuals who are disabled and compared to group unwinnable.
b. The concept of normalcy relate to psychiatric diagnoses created or modified by the APA through providing the best services for those with disabilities, however seldomly considering the accessibility, cost and the comfort to those who are without disabilities receive first priority. Additionally, the APA came around 42 year to understand that biological and physical factors add to the causality of mental illness and other psychiatric disabilities.
c. Abnormalcy most likely always implies deficit or inferior. According to the example of Martha’s Vineyard, D/deafness was a common disability. Since the majority of the community work expose to deafness was not considered pathological. However, other kinds of disabilities such as blindness or orthopedic impairments were considered abnormal in the community. The definition of normalcy is determined mostly at the lack of illness or disability. In another words if the individual is without illness or is not disabled that person is viewed and judged to be normal. It’s common to hear that normal means perfect but simply means typical, routine, common place, in the middle, and to be expected (Davis, 1997a, Smart, pg. 12). There are five factors that explains the definition of normalcy: value judgement that may mistakenly interfere, the environment in which the person functions, the party that makes the determination and their motives, the purpose of assessment, and the diagnostic tools, instruments and classification system. (Smart, pg. 15)
d. The definition of normalcy is closely related in creating a public stigma towards the abnormalcy. Since the term abnormalcy usually refers to minority and inferiority, there is a strong tendency of discrimination, prejudice, and stereotypes towards the minority disabled group.
3. The five models of disabilities: the biomedical model of disability, the environment model of disability, function model of disability and the sociopolitical model of disability. Each of the models signifies and provides to the understanding of the disability experience. The Biomedical Model basically focuses in the method of ones change while the Functional Model is focused on intervention methods and designed to adjusting the roles of ones- self. The Environmental Model focuses on the surroundings of both the physical and social environment for the individual, Sociopolitical Model focuses on the civil rights and equal social status. The two out of the five models, the Religious-moral model and the Biomedical Model are viewed the “problem” as seen solely within the individual because Religious- moral viewed disability to be evil, wrongdoing and sin or punishment from God and Biomedical Model get their information based upon their education and training, meeting boards and licensing principles trusting critically through analytic methods. The most well defined example to use to diverge the models of disability is through deafness. Deafness is considered from the Biomedical Model as natural loss of dysfunction that involves with treatment to the individual. In contrast, the Deaf Community views deafness form the Environmental Model and regards individual who are deaf as members of a diverse culture that practices different methods to communicate.
a. The American with Disabilities Act is an organization that focuses on specific individuals with disabilities to whom have a physical or mental deficiency that considerably limits their life activity. This includes to those who disability that are visible and invisible, and also fall under the categories for the individual who do not have a disability but are held as having a disability. ADA help increase the employment rate with people with disabilities and through the five titles of ADA are providing accessibility to the people with disabilities.
b. From the five models of disability that have been mentioned, three of the models and the functions of models of disability influence the relationship between the models of disability and legislation that is passed. The three models are Biomedical Model, Functional Model, and Sociopolitical Model. Biomedical model pin-point the position of the problem through standardized test and studies determining causal attribution, Functional Model ideas parallel to the biomedical model and speculates disability as an deficiency or deficit. Disability are caused by physical, medical or cognitive deficits and restraints individual performances and or the aptitude to perform an effective tasks. (Smart, pg. 68) Lastly, sociopolitical model turns its attention towards the obstacles that people face with disabilities, focused on impairments and deficits as casual factors in disability. In this model a person’s actions are limited not by the impairment or condition but by environment and barriers are consequences of a lack of social organization.
4. I believe the world isn’t designed for people without disabilities but society would consider it by viewing them to be unimportant or invisible. One of the reason why PWD has to play the part of accommodating is mainly from the Biomedical Model, due to their indifference. Although, the Deaf Culture would say otherwise and express that this is their world as well as we saw on Martha’s Vineyard. Many hearing residents coped and learned signed language. This demonstrates the need for PWOD to make accommodations instead of expecting PWD to adapt to an indifferent society. Mainly due to the lack of accommodations and creating unreachable setting unfairly pressures the choices and availability towards PWD making the world designed for PWD.
a. Mental health facilities through rehabilitations are designed to aid disabled individuals in-order for them to work in the community and improve growth in emotional, social and intellectual skills to stand having the least dependent on the professional support.
b. The best methods to facilitate recovery from psychiatric symptoms is have people with psychiatric disabilities participate in a range of life activities and experiences in their community. Developing the specific skills the individual needs to function effectively and also developing the funds needed to support or strengthen the client’s present levels of functioning. The primary focus is to advance the capabilities of the person with psychiatric disabilities. Other approaches to facilitate recovery from psychiatric symptoms is providing hope and deliberate increase in client dependence so that in result can lead to an eventual increase in the client’s independent functioning.
c. Each level of psychiatric rehabilitations is through developing the specific skills the client needs to function effectively, developing the resources needed to support or strengthen the client’s present levels of functioning. Hope is an essential ingredient of the rehabilitation process. A deliberate increase in client dependence can lead to an eventual increase in the client’s independent functioning. Active involvement of clients in their rehabilitation process is desirable. Two fundamental interventions are the development of client skills and the development of environmental supports. Long-term drug treatment is an often necessary but rarely sufficient component of rehabilitation and through social support, instrumental support, family education and support, skill training, transfer training, behavior incentives and cognitive rehabilitations.


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