1.0 Identification of main issues
This case study discusses the problems that arise in Psychiatric Home Care (PHC). The meaning of Psychiatric by Meriam Webster Dictonary(1828) is a branch of medicine that deals with the science and practice of treating mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders especially as originating in endogenous causes or resulting from faulty interpersonal relationships.The main problem in this case study is to know the effectiveness of Psychiatric Home Care to patients, who also take into account the inpatient and outpatient psychiatric care. This case study also examines several studies conducted by certain research groups to identify the problems faced and the causes of patients with mental disorders. In this case study also noted some issues that arise regarding the services and facilities available in Psychiatric Home Care. This case study done by touched on the comparing the length of patients stays in hospital and the risk of hospital re-admission in home-based and services for people with schizophrenia to determine the effectiveness of the Home Health Care Program Vs the traditional, hospital-centered program for reform of mental health policy concerning the above health condition.

This report for case study is about two important parts which known as an analysis and evaluation of the issues/problem that relate with chapter seven in organization behaviour syllabus, focus on the rational choice decision making process that including the process of identify problem or opportunity, choose the best decision process, select the choice with the highest value and evaluate the selected choice. Second part is about the recommendation of solution for the problem statement. Finally, it will have conclusion based on this report.

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2.0 Analysis and evaluation of the issues/problems
In this part, an analysis and evaluation of the issues/ problem with elaborate more about the point that related to the rational choice decision making process that focus on four process of identify problem or opportunity, choose the best decision process, select the choice with the highest value and evaluate the selected choice.

First step is about an identify problem or opportunity. In this process, it was related to the case of Schizophrenia ranks among the top 10 causes of disability worldwide which causes several reasons why this case was performed Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental illness that will affect the way people think, feel, and behave. The main issue of this case is in the last fifty years’ home visits started to decline. This is because the home visits started to decline, the reason is the advancement of medical technology, lack of practice and experience in caring for patients at home. Besides that, the medical literature concerning PHC was lacking. Thus this is the cause why the in-patient model of care may not be optimally serving that growing number of elderly and disabled people.

Next, is about choose the best decision process. To overcome this problem, a few studies have been undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of home based care as an adjunct to routine clinical care within the community of mental health service system. Instead of that, they also do studies using the 15 patient’s schizophrenia from Saudi with lifetime clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia that’s treated disorders according to (ICD 10) criteria. In addition, they have done the pilot study at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre that show to us the indicated that patients and their families benefited from the nursing care and psychosocial support in PHC. They also have done another study about the home health showed, that patients with hip fractures who were under PHC that had lower hospital readmission for one year.

Furthermore, in the process of select the best choice with the highest value. Our group make comparison based on data analysis and the results. Basically we know that throughout the previous fifty years’ home visits began to decay. It is because due to some reason such as development of medical technology, lack of preparation and knowledge in caring for patients at home. Other than that, the in-persistent model of consideration may not be ideally serving the requirements of the developing number of elderly and incapacitated individuals also one of factor. So a research been undertaken to solve this issue of home visits. This research between re-hospitalization and under traditional hospital based treatment. From this research we can select the choice with highest value based on effectiveness of the Home Health Care program (HHC) Vs Psychiatric Home Care(PHC).

The last process is about an evaluate the selected choice. The selected choice is Psychiatric Home Care(PHC) based on the result by using the SPSS program. T-Test was used to compare means of the numbers of re-admissions and the length of hospital stays. The result shows that Psychiatric Home Care(PHC) more convenient because PHC group show less number of re-hospitalization and less hospital days. It is because in PHC there are more complete with psychiatrist, a nurse and a social worker while in HHC we didn’t know that the place must be in a private environment, social interaction, spiritual and emotional comfort.

3.0 Recommendation of solutions
To solve the problem in this case study, our group has given a recommendation to solve the problem through this research need to have patient health outcomes, and the cost provided should be measured as well.

The patient’s health level should be publicized to the general public so that the community is aware that mental patients also have the opportunity of being cured as a sane-minded person as always. This is because through this exposure it will open the mind of the community so that they do not exclude or look biting against mental patients and even encourages mental patients to recover and live normally like ordinary human beings. This exposure does not focus on individuals but it more about who are mentally ill and this exposure exhibits mental patient life after being cured of receiving treatment at Psychiatric Home Care. It can also be displayed through a short ad that gives the public an awareness of the life for a former mental patient who has recovered after receiving treatment.
The last but not least, we are making recommendations to the authorities to review the cost of spending for mental patients given adequate funds as well as the best facilities for treating and cure mental patients. Mental patients should also be given due attention and proper treatment so that they do not feel neglected and dismissed by society. This is because, mental illness, depression and insanity in a mental patient occur after they experience something that imposes their life and without the support of others. The authorities should look at the benefits derived from the funds provided to mental patients as a fund to reduce crime cases such as suicide and involvement in drug abuse caused by feelings of pressure. The funds provided by the authorities can be used to provide training to prospective doctors and nurses so that they are trained in controlling emotions and can help mentally recover patients. An exposure to the field of human psychology and counselling to the public is very important in order for an individual to know the right way to relieve stress and reduce the level of depression in themselves so that mental patients can be reduced in the right way. The development facilities in the field of modern medical technology should be expanded so that it will help the next generation to help mental patients recover as usual.

4.0 Conclusion
In general, mental patients are not the ones that should be underestimated by the community but these groups should be helped so that they will have the opportunity to live a healthy life like ordinary people. This case study focuses on studies conducted by student groups and the public on the problems that arise in Psychiatric Home Care. Through this study we also see the weaknesses in the management of Psychiatric Home Care and the shortcomings faced by the hospital. Therefore, we recommended a suggestion that authorities must be serious about the problems faced by Psychiatric Home Care. In short, this case study provides an assessment there is an unsatisfactory level in the treatment of patients with mental healing.


1.3.1 Reproductive Health Rights
UNFPA, 1994 and Ravindran, 2001 have defined the concept of reproductive health rights. Reproductive rights comprise a constellation of rights, established by international human rights documents, and related to people’s ability to make decisions that affect their sexual and reproductive health (Ravindran, 2001). it considers conception and childbirth as basic rights of individuals just as a fundamental right. Power to decide freely, how many children they want, and to attain the highest standard and quality of sexual life they would like to have. It also ensures their right to make decisions in matters of reproductive health as free of discrimination, coercion and violence, as expressed in human rights documents (UNFPA, 1994).
Women have been portrayed as the weaker sex throughout and infertility has been seen as woman’s problem. A gender based perspective adds weight to this conceptualization. This does not rely on the biology of the individual, rather as a rights perspective. It expresses on how a woman’s biology can be a vulnerability.

Psychological wellness issues may create as an outcome of reproductive health issues. These incorporate absence of decision in regenerative choices, unintended pregnancy, hazardous fetus removal, sexually transmissible diseases including HIV, childlessness and pregnancy difficulties, for example, unsuccessful labor, stillbirth, untimely birth or fistula. Psychological wellness has a proportionate relationship with physical wellbeing. It is for the most part more difficult when physical health including nutrition is poor. Depression after labor is related with maternal physical ill-health is associated with abdominal wounds or perineal injuries and incontinence.

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Ravindran, 2001, has portrayed in the work by the WHO on Women’s emotional wellness and mental health about the different Reproductive privileges of the female partner. The rights that are being depicted by her have its premise in the different audits of writing and the group from the WHO that has been working in the domain. Based on the findings of the team, she has proposed nine points which need to considered as Reproductive Rights of Women.
These are: –
(i)the right to life;
(ii)rights to bodily integrity and security of the person (against sexual violence, assault, compelled sterilization or abortion, denial of family planning services);
(iii)the right to privacy (in relation to sexuality);
(iv)the right to the benefits of scientific progress (e.g. control of reproduction);
(v)the right to seek, receive and impart information (informed choices);
(vi)the right to education (to allow full development of sexuality and the self);
(vii)the right to health (occupational, environmental);
(viii) the right to equality in marriage and divorce;
(ix) the right to non-discrimination (recognition of gender biases)

1.3.3 The Role of Mental Health in Reproduction and Women’s Mental Health

Mental health is an important aspect of reproductive health., even though has limited space and the attention given to this is negligibly small. The absence of consideration like other medical illness has led to significant contributions in incereasing global burden of illness and and disability.
Psychological well-being issues may create as a result from conception related medical issues . These incorporate absence of decision in conception choices, unintended pregnancy, risky fetus removal through unsafe abortions, sexually transmissible diseases including HIV and pregnancy complications like unsuccessful labor, stillbirth, premature birth or fistula. Positive mental health is firmly joined with physical well being. It is for the most part more awful when physical well being including nutritious status is poor. Melancholy and sadness after labor is related with maternal physical morbidity, including tireless unhealed stomach or perineal injuries and incontinence.


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