1. Every bacterium is made up of single cell.
2. The largest bacterium, named Thiomargarita namibiensi can reach up to 0.75 millimeters and exceeds the standard point having a diameter of 0.351 millimeters.
3. Bacteria evolve so fast but the appearance of bacteria has not changed for billion years.
4. The human body contains about 2 kilograms of bacteria.
5. Although about 10,000 of them have been described and studied to date but Scientists believe that there are more than trillions of bacteria in the world.
6. A study shows that there are more microbes on the surface of the mobile phone than are found on the toilet seat or on the sole of shoes.
7. The smell of rain that some people love is caused by actinomycetes.
8. The man who discovered the connection between bacteria and disease in 1850 was Louis Pasteur.
9. Scientists have discovered more than 1,458 species of bacteria in the human navel.
10. There are almost 40 thousand bacteria of different types in the human mouth.
11. In every 20 minutes a new bacterial species grows on kitchen sponge.
12. Bacteria can have from zero to a thousand flagella, with which they move in space.

13. During a kiss, people can pass on to each other 278 species of bacteria. Of these, 95% are safe.
14. Bacteria arose on the planet about 4 billion years ago and were the first living beings to inhabit the Earth.

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15. Archaebacteria thermoacidophiles is the oldest organism discovered by scientists on Earth.
16. Human sweat has no smell, its different types of bacteria that inhabit our skin that produce unpleasant odor.
17. Office where there are more male employees the number of bacteria is higher than in office with female employees.
18. Computer keyboard have 200 times more bacteria than on toilet seat.
19. Bacteria are even present in hair spray.
20. Due to bacteria Earth’s atmosphere began to accumulate oxygen, for several billion years reached a concentration suitable for breathing.
21. Bacteria are helpful in many ways- the formation of fertile soils, minerals, the destruction of the bodies of dead animals and plants, help in food digestion and many more.
22. There is a bacterium that “eats” trinitrotoluene. With the help of it, scientists want to resolve the issue of mine clearance
23. There is a kind of bacteria that can not kill by any of the modern antibiotics. It was discovered by scientists from New Zealand.
24. In 2007, scientists revived 8 million year old bacteria from the Antarctic ice.
25. Using of hand dryer increases 255% bacteria count on your hand but on the other hand using paper towel is more useful it decreases bacteria 45-60%.
26. According to the South Korean Bureau of Consumer Protection, the number of bacteria on the handles of large shopping carts reaches 1100 colonies per 10 cm².
27. There are no or very less bacteria in our ear canal because earwax is made up of antibacterial component.
28. Penicillin was the discovery of Alexander Fleming in 20th century and he already warned that bacteria can develop resistance against antibiotics overuse.
29. Approximately 2,500types of bacteria are present on our currency note.
30. Newborn babies have no bacteria in them.
31. Three are groups of viruses that cause infection to bacteria.
32. With the help of bacteria, soil and water contaminated with petroleum products can be cleaned.
33. Most of the antibiotics are produced by fungi or bacteria.
34. There is a kind of bacteria that are so resistant to radiation that scientists call them “Conan the Bacterium”.
35. The smallest bacterium is 0.1 – 0.2 microns.
36. Honey naturally contains bacteria of Botulism. Babies cannot process it, and therefore it should not be given to them.
37. The number of microbes in the human body is much higher than the number of cells.
38. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was the first to see microbes in a drop of water using a microscope.
39. Microbes inhabit almost the entire surface of the earth. It can be found both in the upper layers of the atmosphere and in the oceans at a depth of 10 km.
40. The number of bacteria doubles after using toilet.
41. Chocolates have anti-bacterial effects.
42. Recently scientists have discovered rust-eating bacteria; scientists believe that it can destroy the wreck of titanic in 20 years.
43. Gonorrhea bacteria are the strongest creature on earth. They can pull 100,000 times of their own weight.
44. No two person can same have same microbiome.
45. There are about 500 million bacteria on single tooth.
46. East Asians have genes that stop them sweating and that’s why they no odor-causing bacteria.
47. When we wear headphone or earphones for 1 hour it increases bacteria in your ear 700 times.
48. One table spoon of bacterium C. botulinum can kill all the human being of USA.
49. According to research 70% of population doesn’t wash hands after using toilet.
50. Human poop is mostly dead and alive bacteria.


1. Prior Position: Before I watch this debate, all I know about debating is a tic-tac-toe game. We can only win on horizontal lines. Each team has to make arguments and response all of arguments that the other has made on-case, then they can create their own arguments on the off-case, by presenting as much information as humanly possible in the allotted time to back your argument. In the introduction, the podcast is discussing a Ryan Wash’s story debating debate, who is a black inner-city student in Kansas City. As a word “Black” I guess that they are going to talk about racism, but the topic debates about “the merits of an American energy policy”, which does not relate at all.
2. Summary of Proponent: Starting a student debate career in an inner-city high school, Ryan Wash and his team African-American students really stick out in the debate community, this experience help Ryan when he entered at a collegiate level. At the beginning he learns all of the basic argumentation like impact analysis, Toulmin model of argumentation, start to be ethos, pathos, logos and he does very well. But after he met a senior student from University Academy, her name is “Marshauna”, he joined the fold of the Louisville Project’s strategy. He and his teammates used competitive debates against other universities in an unorthodox fashion. They always ignored the debate topic or allowed the topic to flavor the side they used while putting forth their sole true argument such as attacking the entire concept of competitive debate, condemning it as a racist and exclusionary practice, which they presented at every match, without fail.
3. Summary of Opponent: There is never really any voice to the opposition on the subject and I feel like it was sorely missed.
4. The proponent side won: The judge had decided the proponent won because there was no voice from the opponent. In the podcast they mention Aristotle’s modes of persuasion: ethos, logos, and pathos. It seems like in the debates, the proponent has been won on logos alone. What Ryan has done is introduce other aspects into the debate and in some instances has totally abandoned logic by disregarding the topic.
5. My fact-based opinion: Whether this new perspective is useful or not, from the art of debate is up for discussion. But we can’t deny that real-world debates, whether they are formal political ones or those among our friends, are not won solely on logic. The problem with using logos as sole means of persuasion is that it has many opportunities for you to mess up and make errors in reasoning, which are called logical fallacies.


Semantics is the line of study concerned with deriving meaning from utterances. This involves several concepts including sentence relations to which presupposition and entailment belong. This category involves other concepts such as; synonymy, contradiction and tautology. This paper serves to establish the understanding of sentence relations, paying particular attention to presupposition and entailment, and the differences between these concepts to the effect of clarifying the confusion existent in there between.

Words do exhibit relations with one another in a language, sentences also do exhibit relations to one another. This means that sentences also relate in a specific way. You will find that words have relation that cause them to have similar meaning, also with sentences, they have specific relations of which such relations may be led by the reason of the use of particular words. Sometimes these relations may be of certain syntactic structure. But for one to know or be familiar with sentence relations, he or she must understand different concepts that fall under sentence relations. These are; synonymy, tautology, contradiction, entailment and presupposition. Below will be the description of each concept, basing more focus on entailment and presupposition.
Huang defines presupposition as ‘a proposition or an inference whose validity is taken for granted for a sentence to be true or for a speech act to be felicitous’, (Huang, 2007). Presupposition constitute at any given time the communicative background assumed to be known and accepted (Franck 1973). In most cases, people use presuppositions throughout without knowing it. For one to understand presupposition, first they must know the definition of what presupposition is, the types of presuppositions, what they do and how one can identify them. Also, one must be able to know what causes presuppositions, which is referred to as presupposition triggers.
Kroeger defines presupposition as ‘information that which is linguistically encoded as being part of the common ground at the time of utterance’, (Kroeger 2018). With common ground, Kroeger refers to everything that both the speaker and the hearer know or believe, also know that they have in common. This means that during the time of utterance, the hearer has the knowledge of what is being said by the speaker. Examples that are obvious include; knowledge about the world, we all know that there is one moon and one sun. This is a fact that no one can dispute or argue because evidence is already there. This may also continue to include knowledge that is observable in speech situations, the perfect scenario will be what the speaker is wearing or carrying. Also facts that have been mentioned before in that same conversation or discourse. From the above, we can simply say, a sentence is said to presuppose another sentence if its truth and that of its negation both imply that the presupposed sentence is also true.
It is surprising that Magang passed the test.

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Presupposition: Magang passed the test.

It is not surprising that Magang passed the test.

Presupposition: Magang passed the test.

The table below shows how presupposition relate or the structure in which it follows.

T or F?T
P presupposes q if q is part of the assumed background against which P is said. This simply means that q hold the same idea as P.

In pragmatics, entailment can be defined as the relationship that is found between two sentences, where the truth of one sentence requires the truth on another sentence. The truth of sentence B requires the truth of sentence A. this means that entailment can be referred to as a relationship that is found between two propositions that are expressed by two sentences.

Matome is an intelligent student.

Ent: Matome is a student.

Raymond and Lorato flunked.

Ent: Lorato flunked.

Lorato and Raymond flunked.

Ent: Someone flunked.

Mary broke the window.

Ent: The window broke
Tumelo and Ditiro went to the party.

Ent: Ditiro went to the party.

Ent: Tumelo went to the party.


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