1. The name Alaska is derived from an Aleutian word alaxsxaq which literally means the “object toward which the action of the sea is directed.”
2. Alaska is the northernmost state of the United States.
3. Alaska is the largest state in the United States and contains one-fifth of the entire land area of the United States.
4. On July 7, 1958, the U.S. Congress voted to admit Alaska into the Union as the 49th state,
5. The total area of Alaska is as twice as Texas.
6. The capital of Alaska, Juneau, can be accessed only by sea or by air; it is the only capital of the US state without land communication.
7. Alaska was discovered by a Danish explorer, Vitus Bering in 1741.
8. In 1784 Gregor Shelekhov, a fur trader established the first settlement onThree Saints Bay on Alaska’s Kodiak Island.
9. It was sold by Russian in 7.2 million dollars but Russian rulers regretted later when gold deposits were found in Alaska.
10. The distance between the extreme points of Russia and Alaska does not exceed 3.5 km!
11. Alaska has more than three million lakes, about three thousand rivers, one hundred thousand glaciers and about seventy active volcanoes.
12. Alaska is the most popular state for flying in the U.S.
13. One third of Alaska is in the Arctic Circle. It’s very cold in Alaska.
14. The lowest temperature was recorded -62.2 degree Celsius in 1971.
15. In one of the cities in Alaska, the mayor for more than fifteen years was a cat.
16. In spite of the fact that bears are allowed to hunt, it is forbidden to wake sleeping bears in order to photograph them.
17. The flag of Alaska was invented by a thirteen-year-old boy who took part in the competition for the best state flag and won.
18. Golden stars on the blue flag of Alaska represent the constellation of the Big Dipper and the North Star, which enters the constellation of the Little Ursa.
19. Earthquake is very common in Alaska. The second strongest in the history of the earthquake occurred here, in 1964.
20. The 1964 earthquake was so powerful it was even heard in Africa.
21. The highest tsunami in the world was recorded in 1958 in Alaska, when the glacier hit the lake, causing a wave more than half a kilometer in height.
22. Alaska is considered the richest state of the United States.
23. The population of Alaska speaks 22 different dialects.
24. the population density here is lower than any of the states.
25. Alaska has a pizza restaurant that delivers pizza on airplane.
26. There is a variety of frogs in Alaska that freezes in winter, the heartbeat stops, and the frog doesn’t breathe. But as soon as spring arrives frog return to the normal condition.
27. In Alaska, there is only one railroad that connects the cities of Seward and Fairbanks. But it’s special: a passenger can take a train from anywhere. All you have to do is show white scarf or handkerchief.
28. The coast of Alaska goes to three different water bodies – the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the Bering Sea.
29. Alaska has about a fifth of all US oil reserves.
30. Of the 20 highest peaks in the United States, 17 are in Alaska
31. During the Klondike gold rush in 1897, potatoes were so highly valued for their vitamin C content, that miners traded gold for them.
32. Interior Alaska is known for its many natural geothermal hot springs.
33. Alaska has no plants poisonous to the touch such as poison ivy or poison oak which are found in all other states.
34. Pribilof Island is home to about 1 million seals.
35. English and 20 other indigenous languages are official language of Alaska.
36. Alaska has more coastline than the other 49 states combined.
37. Because of their long summer days, Alaska is capable of producing some unusually oversized produce. Some notable specimens that have been harvested in recent years include a 35-pound broccoli, a 65-pound cantaloupe, and a 138-pound cabbage.
38. America’s largest national forest is the Tongass.
39. There are 107 men for every 100 women in Alaska, the highest male-to-female ratio in the United States.
40. Many hotels in Alaska offer Northern Lights wake-up calls upon request.
41. The Northern Lights can be seen in Fairbanks 243 days a year.
42. The largest salmon caught in Alaska was on the Kenai River. It weighed in at 97.5 lbs.
43. Barrow, Alaska has the longest and shortest day. When the sun rises on May 10th, it doesn’t set for nearly 3 months. When it sets on November 18th, residents don’t see the sun for nearly 2 months.
44. It is illegal to whisper in someone’s ear while they are moose hunting in Alaska.
45. Dog mushing is the state sport of Alaska
46. Most of America’s salmon, crab, halibut, and herring come from Alaska.
47. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline moves up to 88,000 barrels of oil per hour on an 800-mile journey to Valdez.
48. In year 2001, a drunken man fired at an oil pipeline, he has to pay 17 million dollars fine and received 16 years of jail.
49. Three groups of natives lived in Alaska: Eskimos, Aleuts, and Indians.
50. Animals such as reindeer and moose are the property of the state.
51. If any accident happens then citizens are required to report this to the state authorities. Special services then take the animal, and its meat is distributed to poor families.
52. in Alaska, there is 1 bear for every 21 people.
53. In 1865, the Western Union Telegraph expedition, led by William Dall, surveyed the interior of Alaska for the first time, revealing its vast land and resources
54. Alaska is one of the few states that do not depend on production. The largest branches of private entrepreneurial activity are fishing and the seafood industry.
55. The economy of Alaska is based on the extraction of oil, gas, copper, gold, zinc, iron, reindeer, fishing and tourism.
56. In 1913, women in Alaska were granted the right to vote—six years ahead of the 19th Amendment
57. The Red Dog zinc mine in northwest Alaska is the world’s largest zinc producer.
58. The Adak National Forest in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, is the smallest National Forest in America, with only 33 trees
59. A company in Alaska has developed a powdered beer for backpacking
60. There is a mile-long zip line in Hoonah, Alaska, that starts 1,300ft above sea level and reaches speeds of up to 60mph
61. Alaska’s largest lake, Lake Iliamna, is roughly the size of Connecticut.


1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
Traditionally, media’s role was clearly defined as; to inform, educate and entertain audiences. The media is also referred to as the ‘fourth estate’ due to its mandate of keeping the executive, judiciary and legislature in check. Audiences solely depended on print and electronic media for information and news. The mainstream media were expected to observe stipulated ethics of truth, balance, fairness, objectivity, etc. in their reporting. Hence this made them credible sources of information to their audiences. However, technological advancement has created a paradigm shift in the role and structure of the mainstream media in the digital era. There is no more monopoly of information and news.
The convergence of smartphones with internet connectivity has seen the emergence of social media that has challenged how journalism was practised traditionally. Online platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, WhatsApp, among others have become popular sources of information and news, especially among young people. The emergence of citizen journalism has led to information being disseminated without observing media ethics of objectivity, truth and fairness while disseminating information. Fake news, misinformation, propaganda and hoaxes have become a common phenomenon on social media.
Traditionally, audiences of mainstream media were treated as passive consumers who took in what was availed to them. However, in the digital era, audiences have alternative sources of information and news thanks to social media. This begs the question; is digital media phasing off traditional media?
The study seeks to investigate the effects of digitalization on mainstream media and journalism in Kenya.

1.3 Research Questions
I. How has digitalization affected the mainstream media in Kenya?
II. What are the effects of social media on the journalism practice in Kenya?
III. How has digitalization impacted on the consumption of media services in Kenya?
1.4 Objectives
1.4.1 General Objective
The general objective of this study is to investigate the effects of digitalization on mainstream media and journalism in Kenya.
1.4.2 Specific Objectives
I. To establish the effects of digitalization on the mainstream media in Kenya
II. To determine the effects of social media on the journalism practice in Kenya
III. To find out the effects of digitalization on consumption of media services in Kenya
1.5 Justification of the Study
This study examines how the advancement in technology have affected the mainstream media as well as the journalism practice in Kenya.
It seeks to create a knowledge base for future researchers and policy makers.
It also seeks to fill the existing knowledge gaps on how digitalization has affected the mainstream media and journalism in Kenya.
The findings of this study will enable future researchers and academicians to build on what the researcher has already done and also enhance debate on the role of the mainstream media in the digital era.

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Digitalization has adversely affected media operations and business dynamics in Kenya. The operations, structures and performances of traditional, new and converged media formats have been affected by the availability and use of digital technologies. The modes of media production, distribution and consumption have been affected, as well as transformed by digital technologies. Arguably, traditional media are fighting to survive and reaffirm their place in a hypercompetitive digital media environment .
Digital technologies have had serious effects on the market structures, value chains, business strategies, structures and operations . Even though technology is sometimes expensive and risky, and some people may resist change and new modes of operation, digital and mobile technologies are part and parcel of media operations in Kenya.
1.6.1 The Impact of Digitalization on Mainstream Media
1.6.2 Cross-media Ownership
In the media industry, digital and mobile technologies are expected to foster significant growth as well as intensify cross-media ownership in line with current trends. For example, the Nation Media Group (NMG), the Standard Group (SG), Royal Media Services (RMS), Radio Africa Group (RAG), and Mediamax Networks all have a number of media platforms in their fold. Except RMS whose main concentration is electronic media, the other organizations run television, radio, and print media as well as websites. Such concentration is expected to produce greater added value than separate activities. According to Kung , cross media strategies will benefit the media organizations because ”systematic effects of coordination and fusion activities will reduce costs and increase avenues, and that shared resources and knowledge and competence transfer among operations will produce additional benefits”. Similarly, the economic advantages of cross-media ownership are enormous. These include additional use of existing content and reduction of costs due to acquisition of content . This approach, referred to as ‘value chain’ means that companies are able to create products and services with more value than the combined resources invested in the process. For example, from its converged newsroom, SG is able to use fewer resources to generate news content from a pool of reporters and correspondents with skills to report for print, radio, and television. Journalists are expected to be multi-skilled to survive in the modern media and journalism environment .
1.6.3 Participatory Productions
The collection, packaging, analysis and dissemination of media products are becoming increasingly participatory. The active participation of users or consumers is seen not only as a common feature of modern productions but desirable as part of increasing cultivation of symbiotic relationship and discipleship, and loyalty which is important as competition for audiences intensifies. Facilities such as Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube and WhatsApp have changed the way journalism is practised in Kenya. Ordinary people are now increasingly involved in media business by contributing stories, pictures and audio-visual material for publication by mainstream media, leading to growing practise of what is commonly referred to as digital journalism. People now easily interact with both content and media workers. In addition, they can easily ‘tell’ their own stories by side-stepping information gatekeepers or middlepersons who once controlled information and media products.
Digital technologies have offered the user many opportunities and power to determine what they want to consume . Although this impacts on professional journalistic values and modes of operation, the rise of consumer involvement and to some extent power to prosumers, circumvents vested interests of media owners, advertisers and government in the process. These prosumers are now more proactive and active in questioning of journalism and media.
Despite the growth of consumer participation in media productions, especially journalism, there are numerous concerns that this has eroded professional values. The credibility and reliability of information generated by citizens practising citizen journalism is often in doubt although sometimes even established mainstream media use content generated by audiences. In fact, oftentimes it is such media that encourages users to contribute content, and thus participate more actively in productions. The rise of YouTube, Twitter, Facebook and other similar social media is seen as typical examples of active user-participation. The success of such social media thus persuades other media, most of which have Facebook, YouTube and Twitter accounts. There is need for such media-audience relationships. The symbiotic relationship and discipleship developed from such strategies leads to brand loyalty which is important as competition for audiences and revenues intensifies.
1.6.4 Regulation
The growth of the media industry notwithstanding, media industry watchers, regulators and moral police have begun to worry about the quality of content vis-à-vis societal values which they reckon is increasingly corrupted because of lack of strict controls oftentimes applied to traditional media. The democratic nature of mobile and citizen journalism means producers of these new forms of journalism and media products are too permissive by particular legal or even cultural standards and considerations. Indeed, if mobile phones are not used by scammers and criminals to fleece unsuspecting innocent users, pornographic and other such texts delivered straight to the mobile handsets have moralists worried as these do not at all conform to societal values. Given that pornography is illegal in Kenya, there is the notion that unchecked, unmonitored or unregulated mobile industry is becoming the new site of immoral and unlawful material.
In addition, the media choices available as a result of commercial and market demands and pressures are pushing media towards sensationalist journalism in which content becomes too sensational as the news agenda is now increasingly determined by its potential for generating revenue. This undoubtedly affects the way media behave and what they avail to consumers especially those who desire particular custom-made content that might not subscribe to prescribed particular legal, cultural or societal requirements. Besides, it has become easy for prosumers to circumvent regulators or moral police because content is demand driven and might not be on the mass market.
Specifically, then, in terms of regulation, unlike traditional media such as TV, radio and print, that would be easier to regulate and police, mobile media offers opportunities to beat regulation and control. For example, it is significantly easier to infringe copyright and intellectual property. The ability and capability to download material without worrying about sanctions or penalties is increasing despite efforts to strengthen state and international law. Besides, the global nature of mobile media means it is difficult to apply state law to content originating elsewhere. Even if international law was to become an instrument for fighting piracy and copyright infringement, there is hardly capacity to deal with the emerging problems .Accordingly, there is need for policy and regulatory framework as well as change in consumer behaviour to deal with numerous problems that have arisen from the increasing appropriation and adoption of digital technologies.


1. Briefly describe the different ways to reduce demand uncertainty and their impact on supply chain performance.
Forecasting can be used to reduce demand uncertainty by helping to increase profitability and decreasing excess overstock inventory and prevent lost profits resulting from under stock. Another way to reduce demand uncertainty is to use quick response which reduces replenishment lead times and allow multiple orders for seasonable items. Improved forecast accuracy helps decrease lead times. This will help increase profits within the supply chain. The use of tailored sources to handle the uncertainty on behalf of the firm will also reduce demand uncertainty
2. Discuss how the product cost and margin determine the level of product availability.
The level of product availability is also referred to as the customer service level. A supply chain can use a high level of product availability to improve its responsiveness and attract customers. Production costs are expenses, such as materials and labor that a company incurs while producing a product to sell to consumers. The lower the production cost, the higher the profit, or the amount left over after you subtract your expenses from your sales revenue. However, low production costs does not always guarantee high profits. Margin is the difference between a product’s sales price and the cost of acquiring and maintaining the product prior to sale. Without adequate gross profit margin, businesses cannot pay their expenses and retain earnings for future growth. A high profit margin indicates that a company is operating efficiently and a low profit margin indicates a highly competitive market or an ineffectively ran business. If the availability of raw materials for manufacturing a specific product cannot be determined, or the cost is too high and will affect the bottom line then there is uncertainty in committing resources to begin production.


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