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1. Since the beginning of industrialization in the 19th century, coal has had a significant impact on the world’s energy supply. To this day, coal is still one of the leading energy sources among all the non-renewable resources. India too, has had a long history of commercial coal mining spanning over 240 years. Started in 1774 by East India Company in the Raniganj Coalfield along the western bank of river Damodar, the Indian Coal Industry has consistently evolved over the ages. With the enactment of the Coal Mines Act, 1973, all coal mines in India were nationalized, which otherwise, had primarily been a private sector enterprise. Subsequently, Coal India Limited (CIL) was constituted as a new public-sector company on 01 Nov 75, to enable better organizational and operational efficiency in coal sector. CIL is now the world’s largest coal-producing company, which produced 554.14 Million Tons (MT) in 2016 – 17, contributing to 84% of the country’s entire coal output. However, the monopoly over commercial mining that state-owned Coal India enjoyed since nationalisation in 1973, was broken by the government in Feb 18, by permitting private firms to enter the commercial coal mining industry.

2. Right from its genesis, commercial coal mining has always been dictated by the needs of the domestic consumption. Last year, India was the second largest coal consumer in the world after China, with a share of 11% in the global coal consumption. With the 5th largest proven coal reserves in the world after US, Russia, Australia ; China, selection of coal as the dominant fuel in the country’s energy mix is obvious.

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3. In contrast to the Coal Industry, the first commercial discovery of oil and natural gas in India was made in 1889 in Digboi, Assam. However, the Natural Gas Industry gained significance only in the 1970s, after the discovery of large reserves in the South Basin fields by Oil and Natural Gas Cooperation Limited (ONGC). Subsequently, the state-owned Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL) was created in 1984, to promote gas use and develop midstream and downstream gas infrastructure.

4. While natural gas has historically been a part of India’s energy mix, it has never played a prominent role till date, due to lesser reserves in comparison and relatively easier availability of coal. However, the demand for natural gas is expected to rise due to the increasing need in energy production and the lesser environmental effects it has compared to other fossil fuels.

5. The largest consumers of coal in India are electricity generation, steel, cement and sponge iron industries, whereas natural gas finds its primary usage in fertiliser industries, power plants, city gas distribution and also sponge iron industries. In 2016, coal formed 57% of the primary energy consumption in the country, followed by oil and gas at 29% and 6% respectively. With most of the electricity in India being thermally generated in these power stations in comparison to nuclear and renewable, there is undoubtedly a very high dependency on these two fossil fuels for power generation. As per the report of the Central Electricity Authority, coal (60.13%) and natural gas (7.95%) have a aggregate share of 68.08% in the total installed power station capacity in India as on Mar 17.

6. India is in the early stages of a major transformation, bringing new opportunities to its 1.3 billion people and moving the country to centre stage in many areas of international affairs. The energy sector is expanding quickly but is set to face further challenges due to its dependency on fossil fuels and also the execution of envisaged projects towards shifting to renewable sources of energy. Both coal and natural gas will continue playing a critical role in the near future, towards ensuring energy security of the country. However, being responsible for 7% of the global CO2 emissions (3rd highest after China ; US), the policy makers have to keep in mind that the country is now globally accountable towards minimising the adverse environmental impact of increased CO2 emissions, after ratifying the Paris Agreement on climate change in Oct 16.

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1. How children perceive certain constructs in sport and assess their level of competence is dependent upon what developmental stage they are in. The way young children, older children, and adolescents judge their sport performance is different, and it is important for coaches and parents with children in sports to work within the constructs to ensure the most success for their child. In early childhood, around ages 3 to 6 years, children receive feedback from the environment and how people react to their actions and are beginning to learn self-evaluative skills. Early on in this age group, they have a rudimentary conception of perception of measurable personal competence. Younger children have high perceptions of competence compared to their actual general competencies, but they are more realistic in specific skills. In a majority of cases, girls tend to be stronger in play-oriented and locomotor skills while boys tend to be stronger in motor and sport-specific skills around this younger age group. In judging performance, young children focus on simple task accomplishment, feedback from significant adults, and usually equate effort and ability. They typically have no consideration for task difficulty or subjective difficulty, just simply whether they can complete the task, and think that working hard at a task indicates higher ability. What parents, teacher, and coaches say is very important in their performance evaluation, so it is recommended that individuals who work with children in this age group to give multiple opportunities to demonstrate mastery and task accomplishment and give positive feedback, though they cannot quite judge the value of the feedback at this age.
As children reach the higher end of childhood, around ages 7 to 12 years, their higher perceptions of competence seen in the younger ages seem to diminish somewhat over the next couple of years. Children in this age range become more accurate in their perception of competence as their age increases. When looking at gender differences, females tend to be less accurate in their assessment of competence and males tend to show higher sport competence in females, though research on this has not shown to be consistent and differences may come as a result of boys getting more experiences in sport than girls. Older children judge performance with peer comparison, evaluative feedback from peers and possibly coaches, and performance outcomes in the team environment. Peer comparison and feedback from peers is usually based on the peers they value most, and these children tend to be better consumers of feedback. Changes in perception from early childhood to these older child years come about due to developmental changes and because they tend to become more concrete thinkers. Peers become more important sources of information, though coaches still remain an important source. Physiologically, early puberty causes differences between peers and within genders that aren’t a factor in early childhood. Cognitively, older children gain a perception and understanding of the concept of ability and they learn to differentiate between effort and ability. In a sociological sense, changes between the age groups in perception come from a more competitive and less instructional environment and an increase in the importance of coach feedback because coaches become more of an authority figure. When working with children in this age group, it is recommended to provide each child with optimally challenging activities and reduce the emphasis on peer comparison and performance outcomes as a means to evaluate personal competence. Furthermore, being aware of and learning about the wide variability in maturation and focusing on skills more and less on development will help coaches and parents with children in sports to provide appropriate feedback that is contingent on performance. Of overall importance for this age group, it is better in the long term for children at this age to learn fundamental motor skills than it is to win.
As development continues, a significant decline in children’s perceptions of competence and control is seen from late childhood to early adolescence, though there are no comparable consistent age-related declines reported in regard to perceptions of physical competence. In the adolescent age group, ages 13 to 18 years, males tend to have higher scores of perceived competence and perceived ability than females, similar to older children, though this depends on the groups being studied. In the younger end of this age range, performance is often judged through evaluative comparison from peers, switching to more self-comparison when reaching the older end of the age range. Gender differences in judgment are also seen in the adolescent age group, with males focusing more on winning and peer comparison and females more on internalized performance standards. Changes in perception from childhood into adolescence come as a result of continuing and intensifying variability in maturation with major differences seen in gender and continued cognitive development with more abstract thinking. Adolescents are better able to integrate a lot of information from multiple sources and peers become a more salient reference group as comparisons are made in both close peer groups and distal peer groups. This age group, in comparison to younger ages, are able to differentiate more between effort and ability and use effort as a source of competence and ability more as a stable, innate trait. Changes in this age group from a sociological perspective see higher stakes in performance and an increased emphasis on winning and rewards. When working with adolescents, especially in a sport setting, it is recommended that those in an authority position hold higher expectations for all athletes on the aspects athletes can control, encourage internalized self-perception, use a more autonomous and less controlling coaching and teaching style with structure. It is also important to focus on multiple sources of competence instead of just one, give effective contingent performance feedback, and create and support positive peer relationships and a positive environment.
In judging their perceived competence, youth take in information from those around them, making changes in social influences play a role in how children assess performance as they develop. A major social influence in a child’s life comes from parents. Especially early on in life, during the early childhood period, parents are responsible for introducing their children to sport and providing a source of physical, mental, and emotional support in participation. It is also in these early ages that children begin to learn about their emotions and how to control them, much of which they learn from example from the adults in their life. Peers are also a major social influence in youth development, especially in the older child and adolescent age range. During the older childhood time period, a shift begins to occur from being highly reliant on adult feedback to more reliance on peer feedback. As development continues into adolescence, this peer influence is often coupled with more self-perception of competence. These social relationships are indicative of the trends in and the changes of how youth judge and perceive competence and how the people children look to for social influences support how they look at themselves and their own success.

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1. Identify the booths you visited, personnel you spoke to and/or talks that you attended.
The booths I had visited are RSM Stone Forest and BDO LLP.

“RSM is the sixth largest audit, tax and consulting network globally. RSM is the largest outside the Big 4, serving internationally active business. RSM focus on growing businesses, helping them to improve profits, enhance business value and internationalise. RSM provide audit, tax, corporate and risk advisory, as well as business support services.”

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RSM had experience in serving businesses for more than 30 years, RSM have exceeded 1,200 professionals in Singapore and China, RSM is ranked as a leading tax firm in Singapore by “World Tax”, RSM have establish business in China such as Shanghai, Beijing, Chengdu, Suzhou, Shenzhen, Hangzhou.

“BDO in Singapore is part of the international BDO network of independent member firms, the world’s 5th largest and consulting network. BOD attract highly talented and ambitious professionals with a globe focus on the recruitment and retention of passionate people. The network’s distinctive employment proposition offers flexibility and autonomy within a stimulating and diverse environment, where employees find a fulfilling work place and a meaningful future.”
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2. Describe three things you learnt about the accounting profession.

The first thing I learnt about the accounting profession is that there is a career path of Audit, Assurance, Tax Advisory, Financial Accounting, Management Accounting, Business Valuation.

The second thing I learnt about the accounting profession is that we can obtain the of qualification of Chartered Accountant of Singapore, Chartered Certified Accountant, and Chartered Accountant from Institute of Singapore Chartered Accountants, Association of Chartered Certified Accountants, and Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales respectively.

The third thing I learnt about the accounting profession is that “Accountants are important in almost any business who trusted with balancing the accounts and to make sure that a company’s finances are safe. The many career of accountancy, such as financial, management and taxation, cater to the needs of its people and show the distance of the industry.”

3. How will you follow up with the information that you have gathered and contacts that you have made?
I will be studying hard first to get a good grade especially modules such as accounting and auditing which would help my portfolio to look better and increase my chances of being accepted by one of the Big 4 accounting firm. After I had gradated with a diploma in Accountancy, I will study in ACCA to obtain the qualification of charted accountant and after that I will choose to become an audit in one of the Big 4 accounting firm.
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