1. The graphic includes a map of the minimum wage laws in the United States. Before then, minimum wage was set to correspond with productivity, as in how much income the average worker produces. If the federal minimum had kept that pace, it would have been nearly under $19. However, in 2009, a federal minimum wage was set at $7.25 nationwide. Some states and cities have raised their minimum wages to $11.50 per hour. When the minimum wage goes up, the employers increase their costs on to the consumers in the form of higher prices, or cut costs elsewhere – leading to less full service and be more customer self-service. As a result, fewer hours and jobs are available for less- skilled and less experienced employees.

The reason why I chose this article is because I am an advocate for higher minimum wage in California. Raising the minimum wage is one of the best tools we have to lift incomes and grow our consumer – driven economy. Two years ago in 2016, Governor Brown sign SB 3, a bill that increases the minimum wage in California to $15 per hour by 2022. The governor’s action makes California, the first state in the nation to commit to raising the minimum wage to $15 per hour statewide. However, from doing my research, a new study from economists at the University of California, Irvine and the National Bureau of Economic research find that over the past 30 years, increases in the minimum wage have not reduced poverty rates in disadvantaged neighborhoods. While a few employees who earn a salary increase might benefit from a wage increase, those that lose their job are noticeably worse off

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These two articles relate to Chapter 5 Price Controls (“What Effects Do Price Floors Have On Economic Activity” pg .160). Most people believe that raising the minimum wage is a simple step that the government can take to improve the standard of living of the low income people. However, what they don’t realize is that business generally wants to keep costs down, so in the long run, they will try to reduce the amount they spend on labor. They might replace workers with machinery, shorten work hours, or even relocate to states that don’t have minimum wage laws.


1. Do you believe the Board of Education violated her right to privacy? Were they justified in firing her? Explain two to three (2-3) major reasons why or why not.
The Board of Education violated Mrs. Pettits’s right to privacy. Mrs. Petty went to a private club that is found in Los Angeles. Only members, Mrs. Pettits, and her husband, was one of them, of the club, were allowed into the club hence, it was a private place. Though Mrs. Pettits performed fellatio on the three different men in a period of sixty minutes, it was in a secret place that no Mrs. Pettits’s students could not access hence there was no way this act could be related to her teaching profession. None of her students could not, in any way, get information about that. For this reason, the Board of Education had no right to get involved in Mrs. Pettits’s private life since it had nothing to do with her teaching practice.
The Board of Education was not justified in firing Mrs. Pettits because her action never violated any of the school rules. Even the California Supreme Court reversed the firing of Mrs. Pettits for the unspecified homosexual conduct. The Supreme Court also concluded that the teacher did not constitute any immoral conduct or any unprofessional conduct. The Supreme Court also no moral turpitude. There was also no clear evidence that showed that Mrs. Pettits was unfit to continue teaching. For this reason, the Board of Education violated Mrs. Pettits right to privacy by linking her private life to her teaching profession. Thus, the Board of Education was not justified in firing Mrs. Pettits.
The State Board of Education did not find any reason to criticize the services of Mrs. Pettits ass a teacher; that means she always does her work very well. Hence, her private life has never affected her performance before. Even her competence as well as evaluation of her school principals were positive all the times, despite things she did in her private life.

2. Was Pettit’s behavior unprofessional or immoral? Do you believe she was unfit to teach? Provide a rationale for your position.
Mrs. Pettits behavior was not unprofessional. She went to the private club in Los Angeles when she was off from the job. That means that it had no any effects on her professions, that is, no time for teaching was lost. She also did the act in a very enclosed place, that is, in a private place that none of her students could afford or manage to see or even come close to, thus, it was not unprofessional. Mrs. Pettits’s previous records show that she was very dedicated as a teacher. She had been children with the intellectual disabilities, which requires a teacher to be patient as well as to be dedicated. It also required relevant skills. Despite all these, Mrs. Pettits teaching record speaks for itself. That is, notwithstanding the fact that her work was so difficult and challenging, her competence was never questioned. For those reasons, Mrs. Pettits was very fit to teach the children with disabilities and her behavior, which of course was a private part of her life, had nothing to do with her teaching profession.
Mrs. Pettits’ behavior was so immoral. Being that she was a teacher by profession, and she was also forty-eight years old, she ought to have been morally upright since she was a role model, not only for the students but also in the society. The behavior was private and had nothing to do with her profession, but it was so immoral. She was a public figure and several persons, both young and adults, looked up to her as a role model, thus, she had directed influence in their behavior and life thus she need to be morally upright. But above all, Mrs. Pettits was still fit to teach, she was more than capable.

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3. If teachers have good performance in the classroom, should they also be held to a higher moral standard outside the classroom? Explain why or why not.
Teachers that are having good performance inside classroom should not be held to higher moral standards outside the classroom. The professionalism of teachers has nothing to do with their private lifestyles, unless whatever they are doing in private has a direct effect in their teaching profession. For example, Mrs. Pettits was not immorally upright, this was evidence by her engaging in wife swapping, and that is also called sexual liberation in the private club in Los Angeles that promoted diverse sexual activities among the members of the club.
Despite that her behavior, she still performed well in her teaching profession.That is, Mrs. Pettits has been working with the mentally challenged children for a long period, that is, over thirteen years, and throughout the period, her competence had never been questioning and even evaluations of her school principle remained positive all the times. She could also face or withstand the difficulties and the challenges she met at the workplace that includes low financial rewards. She remained dedicated despite all these.
All these good works she did during her teaching profession were not influenced in any way by her moral standards outside the classroom. For this reason, teachers that are having good performance inside classroom should not be held to higher moral standards outside the classroom.

4. Analyze five (5) behaviors you believe would show unprofessional or immoral conduct for a teacher.
Child abuse
It is unprofessional for a teacher to be involved in child abuse. The child can be a pupil or student to the teacher. Ill-treatment of children can include corporal punishment of a pupil or student that may sometimes lead to injuries or physical and emotional torturing. It can also be a teacher giving his/her student or pupil punishment that is not equivalent to the mistake he/she made.
Sexual harassment
A teacher who harasses a student sexually is so unprofessional and immoral, and legal action should be immediately taken against the teacher.
Drug abuse
Drug abuse, for example, alcoholism is so unprofessional for a teacher since it can affect the teacher’s professional teaching performance. A teacher is also a role model for the students as well as in the society, for this reason, involving in the drug can influence the students. Thus, drug abuse is so unprofessional and immoral.


IndiGo, headquartered in Gurugram is India’s largest passenger airline with a market share of 39.7% as of January, 2018. It was set up in early 2006 by Rahul Bhatia of InterGlobe Enterprises and Rakesh Gangwal, a United States based NRI.InterGlobe holds 51.12% stake in IndiGo and 48% is held by Gangwal’s company Caelum Investments.

They primarily operate in India’s domestic air travel market as a low-cost carrier with focus on their three pillars – offering low fares, being on-time and delivering a courteous and hassle-free experience. IndiGo has become synonymous with being on-time.
Since their inception in August 2006, they have grown from a carrier with one plane to a fleet of 156 aircraft today. A uniform fleet for each type of operation, high operational reliability and an award-winning service makes them one of the most reliable airlines in the world. They currently operate flights connecting 50 destinations – 42 domestic and 8 international.
2013-14: IndiGo was the second fastest growing lost-cost carrier in Asia after the Indonesian Airline – Lion Air. However, IndiGo had already announced that it plans on seeking permission from the ministry to acquire four more aircraft, therefore actually taking the delivery of nine aircraft in 2013. In August 2013, the Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation ranked IndiGo among the top 10 low-cost carriers in the world.

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2015-16: IndiGo placed an order of 250 Airbus A320 Neo Aircraft worth $27 billion, making it the largest single order ever placed in the history of Airbus. Indigo announced an initial public offering of Rs. 3200 crores on October 19, 2015 which opened on October 27, 2015. According to the submission to DGCA, IndiGo with a 33.8% share of domestic passenger traffic in the year ended March 31 reported a net margin of 9.4%

2016-17: Indigo awarded for outstanding performance and profitability by CAPA India, Mumbai. IndiGoReach has been recognised amongst the top 100 most impactful CSR program by the World CSR Congress, Mumbai. It was recognized as ‘Great Place to Work for in India’ for 8 years in a row (2008- 2016)

2017-18: IndiGo celebrated its 11th anniversary with special fares. Indigo was ranked the second-Best Budget Airline by SmartTravelAsia.com. It was named as Aon’s Best Employer for the year 2016 and 2017.
IndiGo announced the appointment of Rajagopalan Raghavan as the senior Vice-President and Wolfgang Prock-Schauer as the Chief Operating Officer.


“IndiGo is a very quality conscious airline and passenger safety is paramount to our company’s mission and values”


Source: http://www.livemint.com/Companies/RHi9FvENDxO1re0jQ6bN3L/Indias-air-traffic-doubles-to-117-million-passengers-in-6-y.html


The Director-General and CEO of International Air Transport Association (IATA) – Tony Tyler, had stated that the global world is focussing on Indian aviation, starting from manufacturers, airlines, businessmen, tourism boards, global businesses to individual shippers and travellers. According to Mr. Tyler, a bright future can be expected if there is a common goal among all stakeholders in India’s aviation sector.

2.1 Market Size
India’s domestic air traffic nearly doubled to 117 million passengers in 2017 with 100 flights taking off every hour compared to 67 in 2011, as per the data released by aviation regulator Directorate General of Civil Aviation. India’s airlines flew 117.18 million passengers in 2017 compared to 59.87 million in 2011. They also noticed that there was an 18% growth over the 99.88 million passengers who flew in 2016.
India is the 9th largest civil aviation market in the world, In FY17, domestic passenger traffic witnessed a growth rate of 21.5 per cent. In FY17, airports in India witnessed a domestic passenger traffic of about 100 million people. Investments worth US$ 6 billion are expected in the country’s airport sector in 5 years. India’s civil aviation market is set to become the world’s 3rd largest by 2020 and expected to be the largest by 2030.
As of December 2017, the existing fleet of aircraft stands at 548 aircraft in India, and another 920 aircrafts are expected to be inducted into the fleet by 2025.
Some major changes:

• Domestic passenger traffic expanded at a CAGR of 11.46 per cent over FY06–17
• According to Directorate General of Civil Aviation, domestic passenger traffic witnessed growth at a rate of 22 per cent, in comparison 21.24 per cent in FY16.
• International passenger traffic registered growth at a CAGR of 8.33 per cent over FY06-17.
• During February 2017, domestic airlines carried over 8.23 million passengers, showing a growth of more than 23 per cent compared to the same period last year.
• During FY17, domestic passenger traffic increased by 22 per cent in comparison with growth rate of 21.24 per cent in FY16.During FY16, international passenger traffic increased by 7.72 per cent.
Notes: FY – Indian Financial Year (April – March), CAGR – Compound Annual Growth Rate

2.2 Factors Contributing to the Growth of Aviation Sector

From an under-managed and over-regulated sector, the aviation industry in India has now changed to a more open, liberal and investment friendly sector. The civil aviation sector in India has moved into a new era of expansion. Some key factors contributing to this are:
• Increased tourist inflow
• Modern airports
• Supporting government policies
• Higher household incomes
• Entry of low cost carriers (LCC)
• Cutting edge information technology (IT) interventions
• Strong economic growth
• Increased FDI inflows in domestic airlines
• Surging cargo movement
• Focus on regional connectivity
• Sustained business growth

2.3 Some Major Threats to the Airline Industry
There are many threats faced by the aviation industry. The global economy creates a great impact on travelling for leisure and business. A downturn in the global economy means that less people are likely to travel for pleasure and to do business. This leads to fall in income of the airline during this period. To minimize this effect, the organization should devise a mechanism of reducing its operation cost to the minimum level possible to prevent losses due to its operating costs exceeding income.
Some government legislations can also be a major threat to the investors in aviation industry. Government interventions can come with some rules which are very costly to adhere to.
Air travel is very vulnerable to changes in the environment. Heavy storms affect flight schedules, and this means refunding those customers who opt to cancel their flights instead of waiting. It can also lead to loss of the asset, for example, crashing of an aircraft. To minimize the effect of this loss, the airline should make sure that it is well insured against losses resulting from these changes in the weather. There should also be an insurance cover for the passengers of the airline.
Air travel has a seasonal demand especially where a large percentage of travellers involves the ones travelling for leisure. In this case, the highest demand is likely to arise during international holidays like the Christmas season and a significant decrease in demand would be faced in the middle of the year. To ensure that there is no significant drop in customers during the off-peak seasons, the organization can come up with methods to encourage people and motivate them to travel during this period by lowering the travel rates, offering discounts and some special travelling packages.
In recent times, air travel has been a target to terrorists, and this has had a very negative impact on the airlines themselves. Frequent travellers have been scared, and the airline industry has lost a number of customers. To gain back the confidence that they’ve lost, an organization should carry out an extensive campaign solely meant to assure customers of their safety when travelling using their airline.
With the increasing number of airlines and aircrafts, it is highly likely that the shortage of airports and airport facilities will come up. The airline should therefore, invest in its own airports and ensure that they have enough parking bays for its aircrafts.
The organization also face the threat of being attacked by its major competitors. It should therefore, passively work on counteracting these so that it does not fall prey to the accusations made by other airlines.
The greatest hurdle faced by many airlines today is high fuel prices. A huge upward surge in fuel prices can destabilize an investment in the aviation industry. To counter this, the airline should ensure that it has its own fuel reserves so as to reduce the affect caused by the changes in fuel prices as it will have time to adjust while relying on its fuel reserves.

2.4 Road Ahead

India’s aviation industry is largely untapped with huge opportunities for growth, taking in consideration that air transport is still expensive for majority of the country’s population, of which nearly 40 per cent is the upwardly middle class.
The industry stakeholders should engage and collaborate with policy makers to implement efficient and rational decisions that would boost India’s civil aviation industry. With the right policies and undivided focus on quality, cost and interest of passengers, India would be well placed to achieve its vision of becoming the third-largest aviation market by 2020.
In the coming 20 years, Indian companies will buy 2,100 new planes worth US$ 290 billion. Also, domestic air traffic in India is expected to cross 150 million in FY19, on the back of unprecedented capacity induction by airlines*.
Exchange Rate Used: INR 1 = US$ 0.0155 as of January 4, 2018.
Note: *According to Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation (CAPA)


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