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1. Introduction:
Technology is becoming increasingly advanced today, and has never been more prevalent in the world: it’s slowly being integrated into every aspects of our lives: from hospitals to classroom, in the car industry with robots to everyday life with smart assistants such as Microsoft’s Cortana or Amazon’s Alexa.
Softwares are an integral part to this trend of technology integration. As a part of the research and development team, my role is to use algorithms to build more efficient software. Many concepts and definitions, analysis, along with which Integrated Development Environment will be suitable for the development of this program will be discussed in the report bellow.
2. Algorithm
a. So, what’s an algorithm?
In mathematics and computer science, more specific, programming, an algorithm is a step by step method, which is used to solve a problem or to accomplish a task.
Algorithms can do many things, and so be used for various purposes, such as all kinds of calculation: the fastest route home, video compression, BMI index, to data processing and complex tasks such as automated reasoning.
An algorithm has 5 characteristics:
? Definite: Algorithms should be uncomplicated, clear in meaning and function. Each of its steps and phases, inputs and outputs should be easy to perceive, understand, or interpret, straightforward to only one meaning.
? Finite: Algorithms must have a finite number of steps. After that, the program should terminate.
? Input specified: An algorithm should have one or more distinct inputs.
? Output specified: An algorithm should have one or more distinct outputs.
? Precise and Effective: All operations performed should be the simplest as they can and perform their specified purposed.

Bellow are two an example of an algorithm.

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Fig 2.a.1. An algorithm to compare two integers
Fig 2.a.2. An algorithm to make “Fiery red rice salad” (Berry, 2018)

Both Fig 2.a.1 and 2.a.2 are algorithms. Fig 2.a.1 is for a C# program, Fig 2.a.2 is used to make salad. Let’s examine to have a clearer idea of the characteristics of algorithm exhibited in them.
TABLE 2.A.1. FIGURES AND ALGORITHM CHARACTERISTCS:
Characteristic Fig 2.a.1 Fig 2.a.2
Definite Both algorithms are clear in meaning. Every steps serves a purpose and doesn’t have multiple meanings.
Finite Both algorithms have a certain amount of steps.
Ends after 5 steps Ends after 4 steps.
Input specified Prompts user to enter 2 integers, a and b. Ingredients needed to make the salad is listed.
Output specified Display the smaller number between the two. After following the recipe, you will have a dish of ready-to-serve salad.
Precise and Effective No extra steps that performs unnecessary things. All inputs and methods served a purpose, resulting in the desired output.

b. Criteria to measure a good algorithm:
A good algorithm is measured in time efficiency and space/size efficiency. It must perform task the fastest that it can and take as less resource as possible.
c. 7 steps of building an application:
Next, we will examine the 7 steps needed to build an application, which are:
? Defining of analysing the problem: Address what needs to be achieved, the purpose of the program.
? Design (Algorithm): Draw graphs or flowcharts to further illustrate the input, end goal and steps between that leads to it.
? Coding: Write the code needed for the program.
? Document the program: Add appropriate comments, guidelines, descriptions, name of the program or other identifiers, name of author, date/time of original release and updates, acknowledgement of any part of the program copied (legitimately) from other sources.
? Compiling and running the program
? Testing and Debugging: Test multiple inputs, situations, find errors and fix them.
? Maintenance: modify the software product after delivery to correct faults, to improve performance or other attributes
3. Programming paradigm
Programming paradigm classifies programming language based on their features. Programming languages can be classified into many paradigm, however, in this section, we will only focus on procedural, object-orientated and event-driven paradigms and their characteristics.
a. Procedural paradigm
? Focus on features (functions) and how these features can be linked together.
Characteristics of Procedural paradigm:
? Problem is divided into sub problems: a program is divided into several smaller programs called functions.
? Functions shares global data.
? No data security: data moves openly among functions, no encapsulation.
? Function transforms data from one form to another.
? Follows a top-down approach: contain a series of computational steps to be carried out, steps on top will be execute first, then the next one bellow it, until the last at the bottom.
b. Object-orientated paradigm
? Starts with objects and how they communicate.
? Focus on objects, manage activities around it.
Characteristics of Object-orientated paradigm:
? Abstraction: Hides irrelevant data to promote simplicity, along with increase efficiency.
? Encapsulation: Hide certain data. Acess using get and set.
? Inheritance: Inhert characteristics of another class, reuse code.
? Polymorphism: the ability of an object to take many form, the ability to refer to a child class object using the parent class object.
c. Event-driven paradigm:
? The flow of the program is determined by events such as user actions (mouse clicks, key presses), sensor outputs, or messages from other programs/threads.
? Performs certain actions in responds to user inputs.
? Usually used in Graphical User Interface (GUI), Web applications.

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1.1 Background of Study.
From the focal point of diverse and dynamic nature of modern development, the demand for energy has been obviously increasing from time to time. By this declaration, relying on fossil fuels alone will continue to add to the problem of unsustainable power in rural energy planning and management especially in developing countries.
This project is captioned,” the impact of integrating renewable energy sources for rural electrification optimization using an intelligient agent”. The project is emphasized on enhancing stable power supply in rural area with Amoli community in Awgu town of Enugu state, NIgeria as a case study. The renewable energy sources used in this project are solar and wind plus the grid. Amoli have these two in aboundance when compared to other existing renewable energy. The problem faced in this rural area are lack of power supply or intermittent power supply which has led to the reduction of development in the area.
Wind and solar electrical power systems are recently getting lot of attention, because they are cost competitive, environmental clean and safe renewable power source, as compared to fossil fuel and nuclear power generation.
The reason for the world wide interest in developing solar and wind generation plants is the rapidly increasing demand for electrical energy and the consequent depletion of fossil fuels, namely; oil and coal , whose reserves are limited. The depletion reserves, increase in demand, and certain factors in world politics have together contributed to a sharp rise in the cost of thermal power generation. Many places also do not have the potential for generating hydro power. Nuclear power generation was once treated with great optimism, but with the knowledge of the environmental hazards associated with the possible leakage from nuclear power plants, most countries have decided not to install them anymore.
The growing awareness of these problems led to heightened research efforts for developing alternative sources of energy for generation of electricity. The most desirable source would be one that is non- pollutant, available in abundance and renewable and can be harnessed at an acceptable cost in both large scale and small scale systems. The most promising source satisfying all these requirements is solar and wind, a natural source energy . Solar and Wind energy conversion may be mechanical or electrical in nature, hut the present focus is on electricity generation.
Amoli is a hilly area despite occupying a region low in altitude which rises 350 feet above sea level. It is a transitional area between open grass land and tropical forest and has an average annual rainfall of seventy-seven inches (198cm). The population of Amoli is estimated at 10,477 by 2013.
Energy is an integral part of a society and plays a pivotal role in its socio-economic development by raising the standard of living and the quality of life.

1.2 Problem Statement.
The availability of renewable energy sources is limited, the shortage results in frequent power break-downs and disrupts daily life, man power losses in offices, agricultural activities and adversely affect the industrial production and thereby the economy.
The irregular power supply in Amoli and Enugu State as a whole has been a persistent battle between customers and energy suppliers. This is evident in the most recent tussle between the major energy supplier EEDC (Enugu Energy Distribution Company) and Enugu youths on the epileptic nature of the energy supply coupled with the deliberate issuance of inflated bills to customers.
Fossil fuels are running out and people are worried about the way burning fossil fuels damages the environment. For instance, the green house effect, acid rain and effect on the ozone layer. The greenhouse effect is caused by an increase in the concentration of gases such as carbondioxide (C02) in the earth’s atmosphere.
Other problems include:
i. Decline in generation due to Niger delta vandalisation
ii. Ageing of some of the generating units due to lack of maintenance
iii. Technical expertise
iv. Inadequate supply of transformers.
The critical loads like television, lightening, radio, fans, VCD and other type of compact disc that make life worth living are not secured as a result of intermittent power supply.
The Commonwealth Business Council (CBC), said that Nigeria was losing $100 billion yearly due to lost output and high costs for local business.
All these points to the urgent need for the local government/state to diversify/explore other sources of energy generation to save her citizens from such impasse.

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1.3 Aim and Objectives.
The aim of this proposed project is to analyze the impact of integrating renewable energy sources in Amoli thereby recommending the most efficient renewable energy source. This will be achieved by the following objectives:
i. To determine available sources of renewable energy in Amoli
ii. To analysis the energy demand for a cluster of building/facilities in Amoli
iii. To optimize the energy demand for a cluster of building facilities in Amoli
iv. To design an optimized intelligent agent for an effective power stability
v. To Create a chart of the required number of recommended energy system to meet the various energy demand level.
vi. To design a Simulink model for the impact of integrating renewable energy sources for rural electrification optimization using an intelligent agent.

1.4 Significance of the Study.
The relevance of this study in modern society cannot be overemphasized, most especially in a country like Nigeria where power supply is more of a luxury than a basic social amenity. It was often thought that renewable energy sources such as solar systems for instance are expensive and inefficient. However, studies have shown that the relatively high initial cost in harnessing the renewable energy from the sun becomes negligible over the life span of usage. Integrating renewable energy system provides the following impact/benefits.
i. It enhances the availability of energy and electricity to all communities.
ii. Environmentally safe and friendly.
iii. Enhances the creation of wealth and power reduction by offering potential for new jobs for both rural and urban dwellers.
iv. Encourage large scale agriculture.
v. Helps in mitigating climate change.

1.5 Scope of the Study.
This project is limited at analyzing the various impact of integrating renewable energy sources predominant for rural settlements. Thereby contributing to the socio-economic development of the community.

1.6 Organization of the work.
This dissertation report is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is an introduction of the work done. The second chapter is the literature review of the related work. Chapter three deals with methodology, design and implementation of the work done while chapter four is the data presentation and analysis of the work and chapter five is the conclusion and recommendations of the work done.

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1. Why football clubs want to become a company?
Football is a large industry as it one of the world’s most famous sport. It is a rare phenomenon to see a sport clubs like football clubs to go for public listed company. According to Szymanski and Hall (2003), football clubs usually organize as not-for-profit sporting organizations. However, the route from private to public ownership is a common and standard path for firms as they grow in size. Due to the football clubs faced with the increase of their resources and their charges, they are looking new sources of funding to make sure that they remain competitive in the championship. Based on the case study of European listed football clubs, the first football club that went to public was Tottenham Hotspur and it is one of the biggest clubs in England. Besides, in the case study they also stated that the decision to go public could be related to the number of fans and also the ownership structure of a football clubs. A sport business that is publically traded have its own risks and challenges. But, when the football clubs are success it can drive the price up and make a team a valuable asset. That is why a football club want to become a public listed company.
Football clubs actually can give a positive impact on a town or city. There will be a large number of fans attend a game. This will bring more business to local communities and indirectly they can generate unlimited money through the usual activities if the football club is successful. Michel, Wladimir et al. (2010) said that the revenues of the football clubs mainly from three sources which is TV broadcasting rights, gate receipts and a commercial source (sponsorship and merchandising). Initial public offerings (IPO) is a effective way to raise capital and also make their team to expand that is why IPO is being initialized by the football club. Looking into the past, Fredrik and Gareth (2015), they believe that the preferences and the background thinking of investors have a different due to the specifics of the industry they are investing in. For examples when a sport clubs like football clubs going public, usually the investing activities will be the fans and that love or support the clubs.

According to Cheffins (1999), he believes that the main reasons of the sport clubs going public is because they belief that raising new capital to build large arenas will attract more interest from the supporters of the club that lead to increased in revenues. In the recent research conducted by Saliha et. al. (2012), the reasons why football club want to become a company is because they can improve their image of the club. When they transformed into public listed company, they can get the benefits of best practices of privileged communications.
2. What is IPO? What are the advantages and disadvantages of IPO to the football clubs?

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IPO is stands for Initial Public Offering. It represents the process of changing the ownership of a firm from private to public. It involves private companies offering their shares for sale to new investors and for those shares to be freely tradable on a stock exchange. However, the stock market listing of a sport clubs is no a simple operation.
Advantages of IPO
IPO is an effective way to quickly generate a large amount of capital. In the context of football club, the benefit for them going public is to allows their supporters to invest in the club. Besides, the proceeds from an IPO is a way for the team to reduce the large amount of debt.
Disadvantages of IPO
According to Hall et al. (2003), he notices that a listed club’s wage bill is significantly higher in European football although the IPO actually should improve clubs’ transparency and governance by transferring control to the shareholders. In research conducted by Wilkesmann and Blutner (2002) that investigated for German football clubs which going to public. They found out that three possible patterns in their decision making. There are several organizational changes have to be made, such as, a board of directors has to be installed. The role of the board of directors is they will supervise and monitor the operations management. This indirectly can lead the corporation to lose its autonomy. When a football clubs decide to go to public, they have to deal with many complex requirements compare to non-listed football club. They have to provide a detailed information about their financial decisions for each year. This might be a disadvantage because before this the information was confidential and not available to everyone. But now, this information is available to everyone who is interested in it. According to Ritter (1987), going public required a high expenditure as the football clubs have to hire a professional accountants and lawyers to make sure all the annual reports are in good quality. In the research made by Ritter (1991), he found that there is an evidence that companies who have going to public tend to underperform in terms of their adjusted returns. According to Szymanski and Hall (2003), there is a little improvement of performance after the football clubs is going for public. According to Cheffins (1998), to ensure profits to shareholders was not efficient enough only by the management of the football clubs. This is confirmed by the findings by Frank (2016), that many clubs’ share price dropped after undergoes IPO. The reason for the decrease is the football clubs are overpriced at IPO time. But, not all football clubs share prices are decreased. For an example, the share price of Tottenham Hotspur’s is increased after the IPO.
References
Cheffins, Brian R. (1999). Playing the Stock Market: “Going Public” and Professional Club Sports. The Journal of Corporation Law. vol.24 (3), pp.641-684.
Hall S., S. Leach and S. Szymanski 2003, “Making Money out of Football”, The Business School, Imperial College, London, mimeo.
Ritter, J.RR. (1987) The cost of going public, Journal of Financial Economic. Vol. 19, pp. 269 – 281.

Wilkesmann, U., Blutner, D. (2002) Going Public: The Organizational Restructuring of German Football Clubs, Soccer and Society 3:22, 19 – 37.

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