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1) BINARY HYPOTHESIS TESTING 2
2) COMPOSITE HYPOTHESIS TESTING 2
3) SEQUENTIAL TESTING 3
4) REFERENCE BETWEEN THEM 3
5) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COHERENT AND NON-COHERENT SENSING TECHNIQUE 4

1) BINARY HYPOTHESIS TESTING

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In spectrum sensing, hypothesis testing is widely used to test the sensing result for the presence of PUs to efficiently utilize the spectrum. We first explain binary hypothesis. In Binary hypothesis testing it sense either 0 or 1, 0 represents PU is not available and 1 represent PU available. It is widely used when parameters are known so, it requires also prior knowledge of known parameters. Based on fixed number of samples which means it has fixed sensing time. Binary hypothesis are further divided into two types.
? Neyman-Pearson test

In Neyman Pearson (NP) test, objective is to maximize the detection probability (Pd) than false alarm probability (Pf) which means Pd is always greater than Pf. LRT (likelihood Ratio test) is equivalent to NP test which shown below;

f (y|H1)
NP= __________

f (y|H0)

If NP > ? it represents H1 (PU available), otherwise H0 (PU isn’t available).

? Bayes test

In Bayes test, objective is to minimize the expected cost called Bayes Risk. Used to reduce the sum of all probabilities cost from probabilities of two incorrect decision cases.

Miss detection represented by P (H0 | H1)
False alarm represented by P (H1 | H0)
Probability detection represented by P (H1 | H1)

So, the Fusion Center minimize the Bayes risk by declaring H1 and H0 conditions.
2) COMPOSITE HYPOTHESIS TESTING

As we mentioned above, Binary hypothesis testing is used when both hypotheses are known. In Composite hypothesis testing, it is widely used when there are unknown parameters in PDF’s. It doesn’t require prior knowledge of unknown parameters which is also called GLRT. The method which is commonly used to find the unknown parameters is by MLE (Maximum likelihood ratio). GLRT methodology is used because of its robustness and it is easy to implement.
? Another test, which is Rao test is typically used to detect the weak PUs at Fusion center. By the help of data fusion type (i.e. soft decision). Rao test is generally same like GLRT but doesn’t require MLE for unknown parameters.

? Another test, is linear test comes under Composite hypothesis testing is Linear test statistics, which is used to finding the unknown PUs as well as unknown channels .

? Third one is Statistic LMP detector is derived, when channel statistics are known. This model provides robustness to the interferences in Primary User signal also in channel gain. Also it is much reliable than NP- based LRT.
3) SEQUENTIAL TESTING
As previous hypotheses based on fixed number of samples and fixed sensing time, it is much different than both. Sequential testing is typically used to utilize spectrum by reducing sensing time, and requires variable number of samples. Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) is proposed by Wald, which minimizes the sensing time as per detection performance.
In SPRT, samples are taken in sequence and then compared with both thresholds ?0 and ?1.
?0 ?1, FC decides H1
If likelihood ratio < ?0, FC decides H0

When ratio falls between two thresholds, it takes again observations until and unless it achieve final decision. The pros of SPRT is it requires fewer samples, less energy consumption, to achieve same detection performance.
4) REFERENCE BETWEEN THEM

BINARY HYPOTHESIS TESTING
? Based on known parameters
? Fixed samples
? Fixed sensing time
? Sense Either 1 or 0
? Requires prior knowledge
? Easy to implement
? Less expensive

COMPOSITE HYPOTHESIS TESTING
? Based on unknown parameters
? Determine unknown parameter by MLE
? Fixed samples
? Fixed sensing time
? Doesn’t require prior knowledge
? Robust , easy to design
SEQUENTIAL TESTING
? Reduce sensing time
? Less energy consumption
? Much complex
? Expensive
? Have two thresholds
? Better performance
5) DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COHERENT AND NON-COHERENT SENSING TECHNIQUE

COHERENT SENSING TECHNIQUE
? In coherent sensing technique, it need prior knowledge of primary user signal to determine whether the signal channel is occupied or not.
? Need reference signal
? Types of coherent sensing technique

• Cyclostationary feature detection
• Matched filter detection

NON-COHERENT SENSING TECHNIQUE
? In non- coherent sensing technique, it doesn’t need any prior knowledge of primary user signal to determine whether the signal channel is occupied or not.
? No need of reference signal
? Types of coherent sensing technique

• Energy detection
• Wavelet detection
• Compressed sensing

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1.1 Explain how the environment is prepared, maintained and cleaned to ensure it is ready for the healthcare activity

Before any healthcare activity all areas being used most be cleaned with disinfectant wipes or spray this should be done in between the contact with individuals before and after. for example if I was administering medication I would wash my hands make sure they are dry, clean the medication trolley, then wash my hands again make sure I have all the equipment I would need such as measuring tubs, glasses, water, measuring spoons, plenty of water, hand sterilising gel, gloves, making sure there is a sharps box if they are needed. Marr chart with all information about individuals I am administering medication to,. I would then wash my hands and then start my round making sure there is a tub to put any rubbish in from packets or dispose of any wrappers, gloves.

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I would clean my hands before and after administering medicine to individuals once I had finished I would then clean the trolley again making sure all rubbish is disposed of in the correct way. If there is any individual that refuses medication then I would use the clear bags supplied by boots with a label also supplied by boots with the individuals name, the date, what tablet and sign and counter signed with another trained staff this is also recorded in a destroyed/ return book we then would have to date, name of individual, date of birth, what medication, dose ,how many tablets and the reason this has been destroyed this also will be signed and countersigned by trained staff .

Also whilst giving out medication making sure that I speak to my residents about what I am going to do, making sure that the individuals are in a safe position to give medication making sure I wash my hands before and after medication is given.

1.2 Describe the roles and responsibilities of team members in the preparation and management of the environment and resources

All staff are required to work safely to prevent themselves and other individuals being harmed, all staff should report any broken equipment or faulty immediately.

All staff should wear the correct PPE which is supplied by the company. Understand and be up to date with training with health and safety and infection control procedures so that the prevention of risk is easier and all staff are aware.

1.3 Explain how to investigate, make the necessary adjustments to and report problems with the environment

All employers will have policies and procedures on how to report any problems and all staff should be aware of this, all staff are required to report anything that effects the environment. I would inform the manager, head of maintenance and colleagues straight away.

we have a maintenance book also which helps us communicate with the maintenance team. if there was a fault with electric we would get a registered company or gas.

1.4 Describe the impact of environmental changes on resources including their storage and use

The impact of environmental changes on resources including their storage and use largely depends on the setting in which these resources are being used. For example, in hospitals and nursing homes, there are specific storage rooms, refrigerators which are temperature controlled at all times and therefore don’t specifically undergo environmental changes.

However, in individuals homes environmental changes have a greater impact as the ability to control certain factors such as storage is reduced. an example of this would be if pads were left in a shed from lack of storage in the home or if there were medication prescribed which needed to be stored in a refrigerator. If the medication is not kept in the refrigerator it may not work as well as it had been.

3.1 Describe the importance of ensuring that environments are ready for their next use

It is important to ensure that the environments are ready for their next use as it ensures that the area has been left clean and tidy. It also ensures that the next carer who comes in does not have to spend time cleaning up the environment before they begin work, Is an individual needs the commode desperately it is not acceptable for the carer to have to tidy up or have to move things out of the way before the individual can use the commode.

3.2 Outline the factors that influence the readiness of environments for use in health care activities
•How the previous carer left the environment.
•How mobile the individual is.
•supplies and equipment are in the home or has been ordered.

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